AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
|2000||Lower Risk/Least Concern|
|1994||Lower Risk/Least Concern|
|1988||Lower Risk/Least Concern|
|Migratory status||not a migrant||Forest dependency||does not normally occur in forest|
|Land mass type||Average mass||-|
|Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2)||1,710,000|
|Number of locations||-|
|Value||Data quality||Derivation||Year of estimate|
|No. of mature individuals||9950000-13700000||poor||estimated||2020|
|Decline (3 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (5 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/3 generation future)||20-29||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future)||20-29||-||-||-|
|Number of subpopulations||-||-||-|
|Percentage in largest subpopulation||-||-||-|
Population justification: The breeding population, which is confined to Europe, is estimated at 4,975,000-6,850,000 pairs, which equates to 9,950,000-13,700,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.).
Trend justification: The population is believed to have declined at a rate of 20-29% over ten years (the species's generation length is 2.1 years; Bird et al. 2020), due to the effects of agricultural intensification, habitat conversion, over-hunting and the effects of high volume release of farm-reared birds, many of which proved to be hybrid A. chukar x A. rufa (Blanco-Aguiar et al. 2008, Barbanera et al. 2010).
This is a lower rate of population reduction than the 40-45% in ten years reported by EU Member States to the European Commission under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive (BirdLife International in prep.), or the 44% in ten years since 2008 reported under the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. There is a high likelihood that population monitoring in the core range of the species was incomplete, as this species is managed for hunting on large privately-owned estates that were inaccessible to the surveyors. Red-legged Partridge is the most economically important small-game species in central Spain, and 87% of hunting estates, holding a large proportion of the population, are privately owned (Díaz‐Fernández et al. 2012).
However, these populations are not considered immune to the declines occurring throughout the rest of the range, and while there is scope for good management to maintain viable populations with a hunting surplus, it is suspected that these populations are also undergoing a moderate population reduction.
|Habitat (level 1)||Habitat (level 2)||Importance||Occurrence|
|Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)||suitable||resident|
|Shrubland||Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation||suitable||resident|
|Altitude||0 - 2000 m||Occasional altitudinal limits|
|Threat (level 1)||Threat (level 2)||Impact and Stresses|
|Agriculture & aquaculture||Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Ongoing||Majority (50-90%)||Rapid Declines||Medium Impact: 7|
|Agriculture & aquaculture||Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Ongoing||Minority (<50%)||Slow, Significant Declines||Low Impact: 5|
|Biological resource use||Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target)||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Ongoing||Majority (50-90%)||Causing/Could cause fluctuations||Medium Impact: 6|
|Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases||Introduced genetic material||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Pollution||Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Ongoing||Majority (50-90%)||Slow, Significant Declines||Medium Impact: 6|
|Purpose||Primary form used||Life stage used||Source||Scale||Level||Timing|
|Food - human||-||-||non-trivial||recent|
|Pets/display animals, horticulture||-||-||international||non-trivial||recent|
|Sport hunting/specimen collecting||-||-||non-trivial||recent|
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Alectoris rufa. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/red-legged-partridge-alectoris-rufa on 08/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 08/06/2023.