Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris


Artukhin, Y.B. 1999. Cadaster of seabird colonies of the Commander Islands. The biology and conservation of the birds of Kamchatka. Issue 1, pp. 25-35.

Byrd, G.V.; Schmutz, J.A.; Renner, H.M. 2008. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective. Deep-Sea Research II 55: 1846-1855.

Byrd, G.V.; Williams , J.C.; Renner, H.M. 2004. Ledge-nesting seabirds at Chagulak Island in 2004. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv. Rep. AMNWR 04/21.

Byrd, G.V.; Williams, J.C. 1993. Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris. In: Poole, A.; Gill, F.B. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 60, pp. 1-12. Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.

Byrd, G.V.; Williams, J.C.; Arthukhin, Y.B.; Vyatkin, P.S. 1997. Trends in the populations of Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris, a Bering Sea endemic. Bird Conservation International 7: 167-180.

Cole, L. W.; Nelson, K. N.; Sterling, J. C. 2006. The 30th report of the California bird records committee: 2004 records. Western Birds 37: 65-105.

Gibson, D. D.; Byrd, G. V. 2007. Birds of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Series in Ornithology 1. Nuttall Ornithological Club and American Ornithologists’ Union.

Goyert, H.F.; Garton, E.O.; Drummond, B.A.; Renner, H.M. 2017. Density dependence and changes in the carrying capacity of Alaskan seabird populations. Biological Conservation 209: 178-187.

Hickey, J.J.; Craighead, F.L. 1977. A census of the seabirds of the Pribilof Islands. Environmental Assessments of the Alaskan Contontinental Shelf, Annual Reports, Vol. 2. OCSEAP, NOAA/BLM, Boulder, Colorado.

Jason, D. T.; Romano, M.D. 2017. Biological monitoring at St. George Island, Alaska in 2016. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Rep., AMNWR 2017/01.

Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J. C. 2006. A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 273(1585): 445-450.

Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J. F. 2001. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 171(8): 701-709.

Kokubun, N.; Yamamoto, T.; Kikuchi, D. M.; Kitaysky, A. S. 2015. Nocturnal foraging by red-legged kittiwakes, a surface feeding seabird that relies on deep water prey during reproduction. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0138850.

Lensink, C.J. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in Alaska. In: Croxall, J.P.; Evans, P.G.H.; Schreiber, R.W. (ed.), Status and conservation of the world's seabirds, pp. 13-27. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Orben, R. A.; Irons, D. B.; Paredes, R.; Roby, D. D.; Phillips R. A.; Shaffer, S. A. 2015. North or south? Niche separation of endemic red-legged kittiwakes and sympatric black-legged kittiwakes during their non-breeding migrations. Journal of Biogeography 42: 401-412.

Thomson, G.; Drummond, B.A.; Romano, M.D. 2014. Biological monitoring at St. Paul Island, Alaska in 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Reports, AMNWR 2014/12.

U.S. Geological Survey-Alaska Science Center (USGS-ASC). 2015. North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database Ver. 2.0 . Available at:

Vyatkin, P.S.; Artyukhin, Y.B. 1994. Seabird Counts on the Commander Islands in 1993. Beringian Seabird Bulletin. Number 2, 1994.

Zador, S.; Hunt Jr, G.L.; TenBrink, T.; Aydin, K. 2013. Combined seabird indices show lagged relationships between environmental conditions and breeding activity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 485: 245-258.

Further resources

Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Rissa brevirostris. Downloaded from on 06/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 06/12/2022.