Red-legged Cormorant Poikilocarbo gaimardi


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2bde+3bde+4bde
2016 Near Threatened A2bde+3bde+4bde;C2a(i)
2012 Near Threatened A2bde+3bde+4bde;C2a(i)
2010 Near Threatened A2b,d,e; A3b,d,e; A4b,d,e; C2a(i)
2008 Near Threatened A2b,d,e; A3b,d,e; A4b,d,e; C2a(i)
2007 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,280,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 19400-20300 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -

Population justification: The world population has been estimated at 40,000 individuals (E. Frere in litt. 2007). The breeding population includes 17,600-18,300 mature individuals in the Pacific from Isla Foca, Peru, to Punta Elefante, Peninsula de Taitao, Chile, with 1,800-2,000 breeding birds in the Atlantic from Bahia Sanguinetto to the Monte León National Park, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, and occasionally some individuals to the strait of Magellan (Zavalaga et al. 2002; Frere et al. 2004, 2005; Millones et al. 2015).

Trend justification: El Niño-driven declines have drastically reduced Peruvian populations, and the species has shown reported declines of 18% on the Atlantic coast in Argentina. However, the sizeable southern populations appear to be relatively stable (Frere et al. 2004) and hence an overall decline of 20-29% over three generations (c. 26 years) is suspected.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Comodoro Rivadavia
Argentina Confluencia, desembocadura y adyacencias de los ríos Chico y Santa Cruz
Argentina Parque Nacional Monte León
Argentina Península y Bahía de San Julián
Argentina Ría Deseado e islas adyacentes
Chile Acantilados de Arica/ Guaneras de Camaraca
Chile Cerro Amortojado
Chile Estuario de Maullín y Cerro Amortajado
Chile Fiordo Pitipalena
Chile Guabún
Chile Guaneras de Cutipa
Chile Isla Chañaral
Chile Isla Doña Sebastiana Punta Chocoi y Roqueríos adyacentes
Chile Isla Grande de Atacama
Chile Isla Maiquillahue
Chile Isla Mocha
Chile Isla Sala y Gómez
Chile Islote Concón
Chile Islote Pupuya
Chile Islotes Pajaros
Chile Monumento Natural Pingüineras de Puñihuil
Chile Nigue
Chile Patranca Island
Chile Playa Hornitos
Chile Playa Pilolcura
Chile Puaucho
Chile Punta Corona
Chile Punta Ronca
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros
Chile Sistema Quetalmahue, Quilo y Mar Brava
Peru Isla Pachacámac
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas
Peru Río Tambo y Lagunas de Mejía

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Larus dominicanus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Nestlings Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Poikilocarbo gaimardi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2019.