Red Knot Calidris canutus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2016 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2015 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 142 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 300,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 891,000-979,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 15,000-30,000 pairs, which equates to 30,000-60,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), and the population overwintering in Australia and the Americas have been estimated at 110,000 individuals (Hansen et al. 2016) and 44,763 individuals (Niles et al. 2010) respectively.

Trend justification: The islandica population trend shows a moderate decrease between 2003 and 2012, whilst the long-term trend is fluctuating (Nagy et al. 2014, Wetlands International 2018). However the European Red List of Birds suggests that the population is increasing strongly in the short-term and experiencing a moderate increase in the long-term (BirdLife International 2015). Van Roomen et al. (2014) found the population was stable/fluctuating in the short- and long-term. The canutus population decreased strongly in the short- and long-term (2003-2014 and 1979-2014, respectively) (van Roomen et al. 2014). The roselaari population trend is uncertain, but is possibly declining (Andres et al. 2012).

The rufa population has undergone a significant decline in the last decade (Andres et al. 2012). The number of birds in Tierra del Fuego declined strongly (75% decrease) between 1985-2000 (52,244 individuals) and 2011-2013 (11,385 individuals) (USFWS 2014). Between 2010 and 2015 the population at Tierra del Fuego has varied in the range of 10,000-15,000 individuals (R.I.G. Morrison in litt. 2015). Whilst counts in Delaware Bay showed similarly large declines: 70% decrease between 1981-1983 (59,946 individuals) and 2005-2014 (18,387) (USFWS 2014). 

Approximately 10-14% of the global population uses the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. An analysis of monitoring data from around Australia and New Zealand found that both the piersmai and rogersi populations which use the flyway have experienced strong population declines, estimated at a 57.4% decrease over three generations (Studds et al. 2017). This decrease is supported by a study on adult survival. Survival in north-west Australia in late winter was constantly high however survival during periods away from Australia declined in 2011, with an annual survival rate of 0.67 (Piersma et al. 2016). The study predicts the population will halve within four years. Overall the global population is estimated to be decreasing at a rate of c. 25% in three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania V Extant
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant Yes Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan V Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Botswana V Extant
Brazil N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant
Congo N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) V Extant
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq V Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau V Extant
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan V Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste V Extant
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes Yes
Zambia V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Booth Sund area
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Iceland Breidafjördur
Iceland Longufjorur
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Grunnafjordur
Iceland Hvalfjardareyri-Laxarvogur
Iceland Skerjafjordur
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iceland Stokkseyri-Eyrarbakki
Iceland Melrakkasletta
Iceland Alftafjordur-Hofsstadavogur
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Killala Bay
Ireland Nanny estuary and shoreline
Mexico Delta del Río Colorado
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Lundåkra Bight
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Spain Urdaibai - Matxitxako
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Ferrolterra-Valdoviño coast
Spain Santander Bay
Ukraine Syvash Bay
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Pointe de Grave
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Estuaire de la Charente
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Fanø
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre y Reserva de Pesca Ciénaga de Los Olivitos
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Chile Bahía Lomas
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Littoral Augeron
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Basse vallée du Var
Canada Beaverhill Lake
Canada Delta Marsh
Canada Churchill and Vicinity
Canada Kaskattama River Mouth
Canada Shepody Bay West
Canada Miscou Island
Canada Quaco Bay
Canada Longridge Point and Associated Coastline
Canada North Point
Canada Big Piskwanish Point
Canada Pen Islands
Canada Malpeque Bay
Canada Bedeque Bay
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Barre de Portneuf
Canada Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Chaplin Lake
Canada Reed Lake
Bahamas Gilliam Bay
Bahamas South Beach Tidal Flats
Argentina Bahía Samborombón
Uruguay Barra del Chuy - La Coronilla
Argentina San Antonio Oeste
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas
Netherlands Markiezaat
Puerto Rico (to USA) Jobos Bay
Uruguay Penino Beach and Santa Lucía Wetlands
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point
United Kingdom Mersey Narrows and North Wirral Foreshore
Paraguay Lagunas Saladas - Riacho Yacaré
St Lucia Point Sables
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Brazil Baixada Maranhense
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Brazil Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe
Argentina Sistema Península de Valdés
Mexico Ensenada de Pabellones
Turkey Güllük Bay
Argentina Reserva Costa Atlántica de Tierra del Fuego y zonas adyacentes
Turkey Gediz Delta
French Guiana Amana
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Chile Marisma Buque Quemado
Chile Bahía Lomas
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
USA Cape Hatteras National Seashore
Brazil Reentrâncias Maranhenses / Paraenses
Germany Rysumer Nacken
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Cummeen Strand (Sligo Harbour)
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Lough Foyle
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom The Wash
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
Bahamas Kemp Cay to Pigeon Cay
Bahamas Joulter Cays
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Lille Porsangen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
USA Delaware Coastal Zone
USA Cape Lookout National Seashore
USA Delaware Bayshore Region
Estonia Väinameri
China (mainland) Laoting (Daqing He–Shi Jiu Tuo)
Brazil Mangue Seco
Brazil Caxiuanã / Portel
Brazil Delta do Parnaíba
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Mauritania Chott Boul
China (mainland) Luannan coast and saltworks
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
China (mainland) Dongsha shoals
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
China (mainland) Dongling coast
Sweden Lomma Bight
Guinea-Bissau Rio Cacheu
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Guinea-Bissau Lagoas de Cufada
Guinea-Bissau Cantanhez forests
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie
Senegal Niayes (from Dakar to St Louis)
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Kalissaye Avifaunal Reserve
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Mexico Ría Celestún
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Mexico Bahía Navachiste
Mexico Bahía Santa María
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto
Albania Narta Lagoon
Mexico Marismas Nacionales
Mexico Complejo Lagunar Ojo de Liebre
Mexico Área de San Quintín
Mexico Bahía Todos Santos
Mexico Zonas Húmedas de Yávaros
Colombia Complejo de Humedales Costeros de la Guajira
Portugal Lajes do Pico
Iceland Borgarfjördur-Myrar-Longufjorur

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Calidris canutus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/04/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/04/2023.