NT
Red Knot Calidris canutus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2015 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 142.479599 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 300,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 891,000-979,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 15,000-30,000 pairs, which equates to 30,000-60,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), and the population overwintering in Australia and the Americas have been estimated at 110,000 individuals (Hansen et al. 2016) and 44,763 individuals (Niles et al. 2010) respectively.

Trend justification: The islandica population trend is uncertain. According to the International Waterbird Census the short-term trend shows a moderate increase whilst the long-term trend is fluctuating (Nagy et al. 2014). However the European Red List of Birds suggests that the population is increasing strongly in the short-term and experiencing a moderate increase in the long-term (BirdLife International 2015). van Roomen et al. (2014) found the population was stable/fluctuating in the short- and long-term. The canutus population decreased strongly in the short- and long-term (2003-2014 and 1979-2014, respectively) (van Roomen et al. 2014). The roselaari population trend is uncertain, but is possibly declining (Andres et al. 2012).

The rufa population has undergone a significant decline in the last decade (Andres et al. 2012). The number of birds in Tierra del Fuego declined strongly (75% decrease) between 1985-2000 (52,244 individuals) and 2011-2013 (11,385 individuals) (USFWS 2014). Between 2010 and 2015 the population at Tierra del Fuego has varied in the range of 10,000-15,000 individuals (R. I . G. Morrison in litt. 2015). Whilst counts in Delaware Bay showed similarly large declines: 70% decrease between 1981-1983 (59,946 individuals) and 2005-2014 (18,387) (USFWS 2014). 

Approximately 10-14% of the global population uses the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. An analysis of monitoring data from around Australia and New Zealand found that both the piersmai and rogersi populations which use the flyway have experienced strong population declines, estimated at a 57.4% decrease over three generations (Studds et al. in prep.). This decrease is supported by a study on adult survival. Survival in north-west Australia in late winter was constantly high however survival during periods away from Australia declined in 2011, with an annual survival rate of 0.67 (Piersma et al. 2016). The study predicts the population will halve within four years. Overall the global population is estimated to be decreasing at a rate of c. 25% in three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania V Extant
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant Yes Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan V Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Botswana V Extant
Brazil N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant
Congo N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czech Republic N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) V Extant
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq V Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau V Extant
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan V Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Taiwan (China) N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste V Extant
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes Yes
Zambia V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Bahía de Samborombón y Punta Rasa
Argentina Reserva Costa Atlántica de Tierra del Fuego y zonas adyacentes
Argentina San Antonio Oeste
Argentina Sistema Península de Valdés
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
Brazil Baixada Maranhense
Brazil Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe
Brazil Reentrâncias Maranhenses / Paraenses
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Chile Bahía Lomas
Chile Bahía Lomas
Chile Marisma Buque Quemado
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Pointe de Grave
French Guiana Amana
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Iceland Álftafjördur-Hofsstadavogur
Iceland Álftanes-Akrar
Iceland Breidafjördur
Iceland Löngufjörur
Iceland Melrakkaslétta
Iceland Skerjafjördur
Iceland Stokkseyri-Eyrarbakki
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland Killala Bay
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Nanny estuary and shoreline
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mexico Delta of the River Colorado
Mexico Ensenada of Pavilions
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Netherlands Balgzand (superseded 2007)
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Griend (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Rottumerplaat (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Lille Porsangen
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Mersey Narrows and North Wirral Foreshore
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
Uruguay Barra del Chuy - La Coronilla
USA Cape Hatteras National Seashore
USA Cape Lookout National Seashore
USA Delaware Bayshore Region
USA Delaware Coastal Zone
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre y Reserva de Pesca Ciénaga de Los Olivitos

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Named species - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Calidris canutus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017.