Red Kite Milvus milvus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2018 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2016 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2013 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2012 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2009 Near Threatened A2b,c,e; A3b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2008 Near Threatened
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 10,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-67000 good estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: A review of available data in 2009 concluded that the population numbered 21,000-25,500 pairs. The European Red List of Birds recently assessed the population at 25,200-33,400 pairs (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: Although this species declined globally until the 1970s owing to persecution, many populations recovered or stabilised during 1970-1990 (Mionnet 2007) and its overall numbers were probably stable in Europe from 1970 to 1990 (Tucker and Heath 1994). Since 1990, declines documented within its core breeding areas - Spain, France and Germany - have been partly offset by increases in countries like the U.K., Sweden, Poland and Switzerland. In Europe the population size was recently estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 34.5 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). This three generation rate of decline is likely to increase in the short term as numbers continue to fall in Iberia, but in the longer-term a reduction in the rate of decline, and even population increases are likely if current trends in the UK and Sweden are sustained. Therefore, a moderately rapid decline over three generations is retained for the present; this will be reviewed in the future.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Possibly Extinct Yes Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Azerbaijan V Extant
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extinct
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Possibly Extinct
Estonia V Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Possibly Extinct
Georgia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Possibly Extinct Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq V Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro V Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia V Extant
Norway V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
San Marino U Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Sinémurienne
Cape Verde Serra do Pico da Antónia
Czechia Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
France Bassigny
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Forêt de Chaux
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Plaine du Forez
France Plateau Ardennais
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Vallée du Régino
Germany Ahrgebirge
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Germany Baar
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Braunschweig sewage farms
Germany Danube valley Scheer-Zwiefaltendorf
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Donauried
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Egge
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Farmlands Prignitz with Stepenitz valley (BB) and eastern Grabow (MV)
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Forests south of Wolfsburg
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Gladenbach mountains east of Herborn
Germany Hakel
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Kellerwald
Germany Knüll
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Northern Danube valley and southern Riesalb
Germany Oberwesterwald, incl. Westerwald lake area and Neunkhausener Plateau
Germany Ploetzkau flood-plain forest
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Randow-Welse-Bruch / Uckermärkische Agrarlandschaft
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Sachsenwald
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Solling
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Spessart
Germany Stechlin
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Unteres Eichsfeld
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Werra meadows near Bad Salzungen
Germany Westlicher Hintertaunus, incl. Gemmerich (Nastätter-Miehlener Senke)
Germany Wutach ravine
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Alto Ionio Cosentino
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Calanchi della Basilicata
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Fiumara di Atella
Italy Gravine
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Manferrara forest
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Matese
Italy Mount Cervati
Italy Nebrodi
Italy Picentini mountains
Italy Pollino and Orsomarso
Italy River Biferno
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Italy Ticino river
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Insko Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Portugal Arraiolos
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Vila Fernando
Russia (European) Nemanski forest
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Morava
Spain Alange
Spain Albacete - Barrax - La Roda
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alcubierre and Sigena mountain ranges
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain Botoa-Villar del Rey
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Campo Charro y Tierras de Ledesma
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Collarada-Telera
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Dos Ríos and Orba mountain ranges
Spain East Gata mountain range
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain El Oso - Corredor del Río Adaja
Spain El Rebollar
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Gabriel y Galán reservoir
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain La Serena
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Low Tietar river and La Vera valley
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo
Spain River Moros
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain San Juan de la Peña-Oroel crag
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal
Spain Segovia
Spain Siruela-Agudo
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Kullaberg
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel
Switzerland Lowlands of Zurich and lower valley of the river Thur
United Kingdom Elenydd - Mallaen

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Milvus milvus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/03/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/03/2020.