Red Kite Milvus milvus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2018 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2016 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2013 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2012 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2009 Near Threatened A2b,c,e; A3b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2008 Near Threatened
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 10,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-67000 good estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: A review of available data in 2009 concluded that the population numbered 21,000-25,500 pairs. The European Red List of Birds recently assessed the population at 25,200-33,400 pairs (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: Although this species declined globally until the 1970s owing to persecution, many populations recovered or stabilised during 1970-1990 (Mionnet 2007) and its overall numbers were probably stable in Europe from 1970 to 1990 (Tucker and Heath 1994). Since 1990, declines documented within its core breeding areas - Spain, France and Germany - have been partly offset by increases in countries like the U.K., Sweden, Poland and Switzerland. In Europe the population size was recently estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 34.5 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). This three generation rate of decline is likely to increase in the short term as numbers continue to fall in Iberia, but in the longer-term a reduction in the rate of decline, and even population increases are likely if current trends in the UK and Sweden are sustained. Therefore, a moderately rapid decline over three generations is retained for the present; this will be reviewed in the future.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Possibly Extinct Yes Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Azerbaijan V Extant
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extinct
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Possibly Extinct
Estonia V Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Possibly Extinct
Georgia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Possibly Extinct Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq V Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro V Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia V Extant
Norway V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
San Marino U Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Bosutska forest
Azerbaijan Astara-chai valley
Azerbaijan Girkan forest
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Vilajchai valley
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Paul de Arzila
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Lake Strachina
Belgium Côte Bajocienne
Belgium Sinémurienne
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Deux Ourthes
Belgium Vallée de la Lienne
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Malchamps
Belgium Saint-Hubert
Belgium Marche en Famenne
Belgium Lesse et Lomme
Belgium Croix-Scaille
Belgium Haute Meuse
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium De Dijlevallei
Belgium Bassin de la Haine
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Kullaberg
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Poland Janów forests
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Insko Site
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Swidwie lake
Poland Rozwarowo Marshes
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Slupia River Valley
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Russia (European) Nemanski forest
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain River Moros
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Riaño
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain Belver de los Montes-Gallegos del Pan
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain River Pisuerga at Dueñas
Spain Topas
Spain Campo de Argañán
Spain Tarifa
Spain Ceuta
Spain San Juan de la Peña-Oroel crag
Spain Zuera mountains
Spain Segovia
Spain Cinca river rice fields and steppe area
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Villanueva del Fresno
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Tarancón-Ocaña-Corral de Almaguer
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range
Spain Low Tietar river and La Vera valley
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Montagne de la Serre
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Bassigny
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Bazoncourt-Vigy
France Forêt de la Reine
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Crau
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Plaine du Forez
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Pic de l'Estibet et Mondragon
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Forêt de Jugny
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Plateau Ardennais
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée du Régino
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Forêt de Chaux
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Marais de la Souche
France Forêt de Saou
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Arjuzanx
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etang des Landes
France Montagne de la Clape
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Bec de Crigne
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Col de l'Escrinet
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Elenydd - Mallaen
United Kingdom Antrim Hills
Italy Peloritani mountains
Italy Coast between Bosa and Alghero
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Pollino
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Murge
Italy Mount Cervati
Italy Picentini mountains
Italy Matese
Italy River Biferno
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Piave river
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Alburni mountains
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Mount Pecoraro and Pizzo Cirina
Italy Rocca Busambra
Italy Madonie
Italy Nebrodi
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Sicani mountains
Italy Manferrara forest
Italy Maritime Alps
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czechia Doupov hills
Denmark Forests near Vemmetofte
Denmark Almindingen
Slovakia Morava
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Switzerland Klingnau reservoir
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Switzerland La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland Lowlands of Zurich and lower valley of the river Thur
Switzerland End of Lake Constance and river Rhine until Bibermühle
Switzerland Mont Tendre
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Grangettes
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Hakel
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Serrahn
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Lewitz
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Federseeried
Germany Hördter Rheinaue
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Landgraben-Dumme lowlands
Germany Milde lowlands/Altmark
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Ploetzkau flood-plain forest
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Stechlin
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Wet grasslands and forests around Burbach
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Old Picardie
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany North-eastern lower Harz mountains
Germany Northern Steigerwald
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany High Westerwald around Driedorf
Germany Gladenbach mountains east of Herborn
Germany Knüll
Germany Alluvion of the Lower Schwalm near Borken
Germany Waldeck upland
Germany Kellerwald
Germany Hessian Rothaar mountains
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Germany Middle-eastern Black Forest
Germany Schwarza and Schlücht valleys
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Northern Karlsruhe Hardt
Germany Enz valley Mühlhausen - Roßwag
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Orchards, heathlands and forests around Weil der Stadt
Germany Wutach ravine
Germany Stromberg
Germany Orchards and oakwoods near Filderstadt and Echterdingen
Germany Woodlands of Western Pomerania, northern range
Germany Sachsenwald
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Cape Verde Serra do Pico da Antónia
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Vila Fernando
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Arraiolos
France Vallée d'Asco
France Hautes Corbières
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Brenne centrale
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etang du Bagnas
France Zones rupestres du Tarasconnais et massif d'Aston
France Cap Gris-nez
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq
France Camargue
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Marais de Manteyer
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Basse Ardêche
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Puig Carlit et environs
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Wkrzanska Forest
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Barlinek Forest
Poland Drawa River Site
Italy Ticino river
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Rogalin Site
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Mirachowo Forest
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Tyszowce Site
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Tuchola Forest
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Tarquinia saltpans
Italy Gravine
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Calanchi della Basilicata
Italy Fiumara di Atella
Italy Pollino and Orsomarso
Italy Alto Ionio Cosentino
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Russia (European) Ust'-Medveditskaya area
Russia (European) Kuplongskaya
Germany Wetterau
Germany Serrahn and Woldegk-Feldberger Hügelland
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Gülzower Holz and Rühlauer Forst
Germany Kisdorfer Wohld
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Braunschweig sewage farms
Germany Lengeder Teichgebiet
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Alfsee
Germany Hasbruch
Germany Unterlüß / Kiehnmoor
Germany Aschauteiche and Südheide
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Hildesheim forest
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Forests south of Wolfsburg
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Solling
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Farmlands Prignitz with Stepenitz valley (BB) and eastern Grabow (MV)
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Niederlausitzer Heidegebiete
Germany Randow-Welse-Bruch / Uckermärkische Agrarlandschaft
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Mooswälder near Freiburg
Germany Baar
Germany Mittlerer Rammert
Germany Danube valley Scheer-Zwiefaltendorf
Germany Ingerkinger Moore and adjoining forests
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Spessart
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Northern Danube valley and southern Riesalb
Germany Bodanrück and Mindelsee
Germany Rhine flats Altlußheim-Mannheim
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Unteres Eichsfeld
Germany Central Black Forest
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Donauried
Germany Korker Wald
Germany Pfrunger and Burgweiler Ried
Germany Military training area Hohenfels
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Riedforst near Melsungen
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Lower Gersprenz lowlands incl. Reinheim pond
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Zschornoer Heide
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Farmlands near Kusey (Altmark)
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Werra meadows near Bad Salzungen
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Klietzer Heide
Germany Mouth of river Schwarze Elster
Germany Glücksburger Heide
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Davert
Germany Egge
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, northern oxbow
Germany Oberwesterwald, incl. Westerwald lake area and Neunkhausener Plateau
Germany Ahrgebirge
Germany Westlicher Hintertaunus, incl. Gemmerich (Nastätter-Miehlener Senke)
Germany Warder See
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Wiltzer and Trattenerbach
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster
Luxembourg Region of Schuttrange, Canach, Lenningen and Gostingen
Luxembourg Valley of the Ernze Blanche
Denmark Haderslev Tunneldal (Pamhule Skov)
Denmark Kongens Mose and Draved Skov
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Oswin site
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Pszczew Lakes and Obra River Valley
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Krotoszyn Oak Forest
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Hel Peninsula
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Alcubierre and Sigena mountain ranges
Spain Dos Ríos and Orba mountain ranges
Spain Collarada-Telera
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Spain Alange
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain La Serena
Spain Siruela-Agudo
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Valdehornillos-Santa Amalia
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain Botoa-Villar del Rey
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain East Gata mountain range
Spain Gabriel y Galán reservoir
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain El Oso - Corredor del Río Adaja
Spain Albacete - Barrax - La Roda
Spain El Rebollar
Spain Campo Charro y Tierras de Ledesma
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Denmark Gribskov Area
Denmark Lindet Skov, Hønning Plantage, Lovrup Skov and Skrøp
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Greece Evros delta
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Giouchtas, Crete
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Milvus milvus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2020.