NT
Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2016 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2013 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2012 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c; A3b,c; A4b,c
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,360,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2001
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-15 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-15 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 300,000-800,000 individuals, with 30,000-64,000 pairs in Europe (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction. The European population (forming c.40% of the global population) is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 17.1 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan U Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
San Marino U Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan V Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan V Extant
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan V Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Malta Comino island
Belarus Kaz'jany
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Slovenia River Drava
Moldova Purcari - Etulia
Moldova Congaz – Taraclia Lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Moson Plain
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Szatmár-Bereg
Hungary Gerje-sik
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Terekhovski oak-forest
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve)
Ukraine Ukrainian Steppe Nature Reserve
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
France Montagne de la Serre
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Plateau de Valensole
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
Italy Peloritani mountains
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Piave river
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Rieti lakes
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Ticino river
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Albania Patoku lagoon
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Georgia Meskheti
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Austria Heideboden
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Botswana Okavango Delta
Botswana Lake Ngami
Ukraine Agricultural lands near Bilorets'ke (Chornozemne village)
Ukraine Gajchur river valley
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Knyazhe-Grigorivka village)
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Vasylivka village)
Ukraine Konka river mouth
Ukraine Chauda
Ukraine Berezans'kyj lyman and Solonets Tuzly pond
Russia (European) Leninsk forest area
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shiye and Maliye Donki lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Intenis Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of river Irtysh near village Atak
Russia (Central Asian) Karazjukski complex of marshes and lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Latvia Pape
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Camargue
France Marais de Manteyer
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskaya anabranch (Irtysh flood-plain)
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest
Russia (Central Asian) Ebeity lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Abushkan lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Ukraine Dneaster Landscope Park
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Kazakhstan Alekseevskie steppe pine forests
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Shapsugsko-Takhtamutaiskaya rice-irrigation system
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Cheikh Zennad
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Hima Anjar - Kfar Zabad
Lebanon Southern El Kabir River
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Lebanon Ras Al Chaqaa
Russia (European) Krasniy Les area
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Hungary Kaszáló Wood of Abony
Slovakia Pusté Úľany - Zeleneč
Slovakia Ostrovné lúky
Slovakia Miloslavov
Slovakia Lehnice
Slovakia Dolné Považie
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Bassa Parmense
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Russia (European) Severo-donetskaya
Russia (European) Prisyun'ski forest
Russia (European) Buninski forest
Russia (European) Ergeninskaya area
Russia (European) Bylinskaya
Russia (European) Vedeneevsk pine forest
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Câmpia Cermeiului
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Hunedoara Timişană
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Romania Lake Brateş
Romania Barcă river flood-plain
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Bârnova woodland
Romania Horga - Zorleni
Romania Radomir wood
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Romania Alceului valley
Romania Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş
Romania Beştepe - Mahmudia
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei
Romania Comana
Romania Denis Tepe
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Mândra wetlands
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lake Taşaul
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Kazakhstan Ural River Valley
Cyprus Cape Greco
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau
Egypt Suez
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Serbia Okanj I Rusanda
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Niger Termit Mountains
Kenya Lolldaiga-Mugogodo-Ewaso N'yiro
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece Central Zagori and mount Mitsikeli
Greece Lake Pamvotida (Ioannina)
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Lavreotiki peninsula and Patroklos islet
Greece Kythira island
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Northern Chios
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Geropotamos estuary, Crete
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Serbia Slatine srednjeg Banata
Serbia Stari Begej
Bosnia and Herzegovina Duvanjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Kupreško polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Vukovsko-Ravanjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostarsko Blato

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Falco vespertinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2021.