LC
Red-footed Booby Sula sula



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 1016 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 185,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 121,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number >1,000,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1992). National population sizes have been estimated at <100 breeding pairs and <50 individuals on migration in Taiwan and <100 breeding pairs and <50 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to habitat loss, predation by invasive species and unsustainable levels of exploitation.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa U Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belize N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Cook Islands N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Polynesia N Extant
French Southern Territories U Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guyana U Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritius V Extinct Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Mozambique U Extant
Nauru V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
Nicaragua U Extant
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) N Extant
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) V Extant
Samoa N Extant
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) V Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia U Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Suriname U Extant
Taiwan, China U Extant
Tanzania V Extant
Thailand V Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Tuvalu N Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu U Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Polynesia Manuae, Motu One et Maupihaa
Marshall Islands Bokak Atoll
French Polynesia Maria
French Polynesia Fangataufa
French Polynesia Tetiaroa
Kiribati Malden Island
French Polynesia Apataki, Arutua et Kaukura (Îles Palliser)
French Southern Territories Europa
Seychelles Cosmoledo
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
French Southern Territories Tromelin
British Indian Ocean Territory Barton Point Nature Reserve, Diego Garcia
British Indian Ocean Territory Danger Island, Chagos Bank
Indonesia Pulau Manuk
Cayman Islands (to UK) Booby Pond Nature Reserve
Bahamas Graham's Harbour
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Navassa
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
St Vincent and the Grenadines Battowia Island
Belize Belize Off-shore and Barrier Islands
Antigua and Barbuda Redonda
Puerto Rico (to USA) Mona and Monito
Virgin Islands (to USA) North-west Cays
Anguilla (to UK) Prickly Pear (East and West)
Trinidad and Tobago St Giles Islands
Trinidad and Tobago Little Tobago Island
New Caledonia (to France) Îles des récifs Bampton et Chesterfield
Mexico Islas Revillagigedo
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island
Christmas Island (to Australia) North Keeling Island
Australia Coringa-Herald Reefs
French Polynesia Crêtes et pentes du Mont Marau
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) North Keeling Island
Palau Ngeriungs, Palau
Palau Fana Island
Palau Helen Island, Hatohobei
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs d'Entrecasteaux
Marshall Islands Taongi Atoll
Tonga Maninita, Taula, Lualoli
Tonga 'Ata Island
Marshall Islands Bikar Atoll
Marshall Islands Taka Atoll
Marshall Islands Enewetok Atoll
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Rota
Micronesia, Federated States of Wolouna, Ahnd Atoll
French Polynesia Hatu iti
USA Lehua Islet
Kiribati McKean Island
Kiribati Orona Atoll (Hull Island)
Kiribati Nikumaroro (Gardner Island)
Kiribati Abariranga (Canton) Island
Kiribati Enderbury Island
Kiribati Rawaki (Phoenix Island)
Kiribati Teraina (Washington Island)
Kiribati Tabuaeran (Fanning Island)
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Kiribati Vostok Island
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island
Fiji Vanua Masi Islet
Fiji Vetauua
Fiji Qelelevu Islands
Fiji Kibobo Islet
Fiji Nukubasaga & Nukupureti
Fiji Mabualau & Saqata Rocks
Fiji Namenalala
American Samoa National Park of American Samoa - Tutuila
American Samoa Swain's Atoll
French Polynesia Fatu Hiva
French Polynesia Makatea
French Polynesia Vallée d'Opunohu
French Polynesia Morane
French Polynesia Motane (Mohotani)
French Polynesia Moruroa
French Polynesia Kauehi
French Polynesia Tikehau
French Polynesia Motu de l'ouest et du sud de Rangiroa
French Polynesia Reitoru
French Polynesia Fatu Huku
French Polynesia Hatuta'a
American Samoa Rose Atoll
French Polynesia Akamaru island
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Ua Huka
French Polynesia Tahanea
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Ua Pou
French Polynesia Bora Bora
French Polynesia Maiao
French Polynesia Maupiti
French Polynesia Mehetia
French Polynesia Tupai
French Polynesia Anuanuraro
French Polynesia Anuanurunga
French Polynesia Fakarava Atolls
French Polynesia Haraiki
French Polynesia Manuhangi
French Polynesia Motutunga
French Polynesia Nukutepipi
French Polynesia Tekokota
French Polynesia Hatu iti
USA Lehua Islet
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
USA Kilauea Point National Wildlife Refuge
Cook Islands Suwarrow Atoll National Park
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api
Fiji Vatu-i-Ra
Ecuador Pacific, Southeast 12 - Marine
Ecuador Pacific, Southeast 13 - Marine
Ecuador Pacific, Southeast 14 - Marine
French Southern Territories Europa - Marine
French Southern Territories Tromelin - Marine
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) North Keeling Island - Marine
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island - Marine
Seychelles Aldabra atoll / Cosmoledo atoll - Marine
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api - Marine
Indonesia Pulau Manuk - Marine
Cayman Islands (to UK) Booby Pond Nature Reserve - Marine
British Indian Ocean Territory Barton Point Nature Reserve, Diego Garcia - Marine
British Indian Ocean Territory Danger Island, Chagos Bank - Marine
Australia Coringa-Herald Reefs - Marine
Brazil Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha
Micronesia, Federated States of Gaferut (Faiyew) Island
Micronesia, Federated States of East Fayu
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Wake Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Baker Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Howland Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Jarvis Island
Cook Islands Takutea Wildlife Sanctuary
Papua New Guinea Southern New Ireland Marine
Marshall Islands Bokak Atoll Marine
Fiji Ringgold Islands Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll Marine
Palau Fana Island Marine
Fiji Namenelala Marine
Fiji Northern Lau Marine
Tonga Ata Island Marine
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island) Marine
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island Marine
Kiribati Malden Island Marine
French Polynesia Tetiaroa, Moorea et Tahiti Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs d'Entrecasteaux Marin
Kiribati Starbuck Island
Kiribati Flint Island
New Caledonia (to France) Île Walpole
New Caledonia (to France) Île Matthew
New Caledonia (to France) Île Hunter
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots du lagon sud
New Caledonia (to France) District de Wetr à Lifou
Tonga Fonualei
Tonga Late
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Atafu
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Nukunonu
Solomon Islands East Rennell
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Maug Islands
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Guguan Island
Papua New Guinea Tench Island
French Polynesia Clipperton
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Alofi
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Futuna Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs Bampton et Chesterfield Marin
Fiji Ringgold Islands
Fiji Ringgold Islands
Mexico Islas de la Sonda de Campeche
Philippines Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Sula sula. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2020.