EN
Red-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bc+4bc; C2a(i) A2bc+4bc; C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2023 Endangered A2bc+4bc; C2a(i)
2021 Least Concern
2016 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(v);C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(v);C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c; C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 23,300 km2 medium
Area of Occupancy (breeding/resident) 4,600 km2
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 1200-1600 mature individuals poor estimated 2023
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 2015-2026
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 40-69% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 40-69% - - -
Generation length 3.98 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 10-100 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: The species is described as uncommon and local (Collar and Boesman 2020), and population estimations are complicated by a low detectability in difficult terrain, dense forests and fog (L. M. Vallejos Bardales in litt. 2023). In 1995, field surveys found it to occur at a density of 25.3-88 individuals/km2 (Jacobs and Walker 1999). A recent re-survey however only detected densities of 3-4 individuals/km2 in an isolated, disturbed forest patch, even though it has been noted that densities may be higher in undisturbed continuous habitat (M. Sánchez-Nivicela in litt. 2023).
Within the species' extant range, a total of 2,380 km2 are covered by forested habitat (Global Forest Watch 2023). To account for its localised distribution and extreme rarity particularly in the Peruvian part of the range, it is here precautionarily assumed that only 25% of forested habitat are occupied, i.e. c.600 km2. Extrapolating from the minimum population density of 3-4 individuals/km2 detected, the global population may number 1,800-2,400 individuals. This roughly equates to 1,200-1,600 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is thought to decline on the basis of continued habitat destruction and fragmentation. It appears to have disappeared from several previously occupied sites (M. Sánchez-Nivicela in litt. 2023).
Surveys carried out in 1995 at Selva Alegre (Ecuador) found a population of 169 individuals at this site (Jacobs and Walker 1999). A re-survey in 2021 detected only 20 individuals (M. Sánchez-Nivicela in litt. 2023). This equates to a reduction of 62.5% over three generations (11.9 years), assuming an exponential decline. Despite a lack of data from other occupied areas it is highly plausible that this rate of decline is representative for the Ecuadorian part of the range, given comparable patterns of habitat conversion and degradation across the range (M. Sánchez-Nivicela in litt. 2023). There are no trend data from Peru; however habitat there is considered overall secure (SERFOR 2018) and thus population declines may be considerably slower. Nevertheless, given that Peru holds only a small fraction of the global range, the impact on the overall population trend may be minor. Therefore, accounting for uncertainty in the trend value, population declines are here placed in the band 40-69% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Ecuador extant native yes
Peru extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Acanamá-Guashapamba-Aguirre
Ecuador Bosque Protector Colambo-Yacuri
Ecuador Bosque Protector Dudas-Mazar
Ecuador Montañas de Zapote-Najda
Ecuador Cajas-Mazán
Ecuador Parque Nacional Podocarpus
Ecuador Parque Nacional Sangay
Ecuador Selva Alegre
Peru La Cocha
Peru Cerro Chinguela

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 2500 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/red-faced-parrot-hapalopsittaca-pyrrhops on 29/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/02/2024.