Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus


Taxonomic note
Vireo olivaceus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) has been split into Red-eyed Vireo V. olivaceus and Chivi Vireo V. chivi, as previously adopted by Stotz et al. (1996). Battey and Klicka (2017) strengthen this case on the basis of complete genetic separation and entirely antithetical patterns of movement but make no attempt to consider morphological characters. Boesman (2016) provides further support via finding that there is an extreme likelihood that there are consistent differences between the songs, (allowing a score of 4), plus chivi has a dark brown versus ruby-red iris (3) and the different migratory habits (maximum permitted score 1). Consequently, Chivi Vireo V. chivi is accorded species status.

Taxonomic source(s)
Battey, C. J., & Klicka, J. 2017. Cryptic speciation and gene flow in a migratory songbird species complex: Insights from the Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 113: 67-75.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2019. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 4. Available at:
Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. 1996. Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 14,500,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals unknown poor 0
Population trend increasing estimated -
Generation length (years) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: Partners in Flight estimate the global population to number 180 million mature individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2017), however this was before the taxonomic split of Vireo chivi. Nevertheless, the population size is extremely large.

Trend justification:

This species has undergone an increase over the last 50 years in North America (44% increase between 1966 and 2015 based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer et al. 2017), or 43% increase between 1970 and 2014 based on Partners in Flight (A. Panjabi in litt. 2017)). Recent trends suggest a large, significant increase of 14.5% over the last three generations (Sauer et al. 2017). 

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda extant native
Argentina extant native yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) extant native
Bahamas extant native
Barbados extant native
Belize extant native yes yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant native
Bolivia extant native
Brazil extant native
Canada extant native yes yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant native
Chile extant native
Colombia extant native
Costa Rica extant native yes
Cuba extant native
Dominica extant native
Dominican Republic extant vagrant yes
Ecuador extant native
El Salvador extant native
French Guiana extant native
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Guadeloupe (to France) extant vagrant yes
Guatemala extant native
Guyana extant native
Haiti extant native
Honduras extant native
Iceland extant vagrant
Ireland extant vagrant
Jamaica extant vagrant
Malta extant vagrant
Martinique (to France) extant native
Mexico extant native
Montserrat (to UK) extant native
Morocco extant vagrant
Netherlands extant vagrant
Nicaragua extant native yes
Panama extant native
Paraguay extant native yes
Peru extant native
Poland extant vagrant
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant native
St Kitts and Nevis extant native
St Lucia extant native
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines extant native
Suriname extant native
Trinidad and Tobago extant native yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant native
United Kingdom extant vagrant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Uruguay extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Venezuela extant native
Virgin Islands (to UK) extant native yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant vagrant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Vireo olivaceus. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023.