Red-crowned Crane Grus japonensis


BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened Birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Cao, M., Xu, H., Le, Z., Zhu, M., Cao, Y. 2015. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane–Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation. PLoS ONE 10: e0129833.

Collar, N.J. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: Chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook 48(1): 7-28.

European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. EEPs and ESBs. Available at:

Goroshko, O. A. 2012. Red-crowned Cranes on the Russian-Chinese Argun River and neighboring parts of the Daurian steppes. Chinese Birds: 230–237.

Harris, J. 2008. Cranes respond to climate change. ICF Bugle 34(3): 1-3, 14-15.

Harris, J. and Mirande, C. 2013. A global overview of cranes: status, threats and conservation priorities. Chinese Birds 4(3): 189-209.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

IUCN. 2022. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2022-1. Available at: (Accessed: 21 July 2022).

Jiang, H., Qian, F., Liu, C., Li, X., Hou, Y., Zhang, G., Dai, M. and Liu, D. 2012. Impact of marsh changes on breeding cranes in Sanjiang Plain, northeastern China. Chinese Birds 3: 165–179.

Jinming, L., Yajie, Y., Zhongyan, G., Wenfeng, W. and Hartup, B.K. 2016. Lead in the Red-Crowned Cranes (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong Wetland, Northeastern China: A Report. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 97(2): 177-183.

K, Hu D, Momose K, editors. 2007. The current status and issues of the Red-crowned Cranes. Tancho Protection Group, Kushiro, Japan.

Klenova, A. V.; Volodin, I. A.; Volodina, E. V. 2007. The vocal development of the Red-crowned Crane Grus japonensis. Ornithological Science 6(2): 107-119.

Koga, K., Hu, D., Momose, K., (ed). 2009. Toward the future: the Red-crowned Cranes and people. Tancho Protection Group, Kushiro, Japan.

Lee Kisup and Yoo Seunghwa. 2010. The red-crowned crane wintering population increase and conservation in Korea. China Crane News 14(1): 20-25.

Lee, S.D., Jablonski, P.D. and Higuchi, H. 2007. Effect of heterospecifics on foraging of endangered red-crowned and white-naped cranes in the Korean Demilitarized Zone. Ecological Research 22(4): 635-640.

Lee, S.D., Jablonski, P.D. and Higuchi, H. 2007. Winter foraging of threatened cranes in the Demilitarized Zone of Korea: behavioral evidence for the conservation importance of unplowed rice fields. Biological Conservation 139(1-2): 286-289.

Li, D., Ding, Y., Yuan, Y., Lloyd, H., and Zhang, Z. 2014. Female tidal mudflat crabs represent a critical food resource for migratory Red-crowned Cranes in the Yellow River Delta, China . Bird Conserv. Int. 24: 416–428.

Liu, C., Zhang, S., Jiang, H. & Wang, H. 2009. Spatiotemporal dynamics and landscape pattern of alien species Spartina alterniflora in Yancheng coastal wetlands of Jiangsu Province, China. (In Chinese.). China Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 901–908.

Liying, S. and Hongfei, Z. 2012. Status, threats, and conservation needs for the continental population of the Red-crowned Crane. Chinese Birds 3(3): 147-161.

Luo, J., Ye, Y., Gao, Z., Wang, W., & Hartup, B. K. 2016. Lead in the red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong wetland, Northeastern China: a report. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 97(2): 177-183.

Masatomi, Y. 2013. [PTT attached individual] (In Japanese.). Tancho 18: 8.

Meine, C. D. and Archibald, G. W. 1996. The cranes - status survey and conservation action plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K.

Momose, Y. S. & Momose, K. 2019. Species Review: Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis): IUCN SSC Crane Specialist Group – Crane Conservation Strategy. In: Mirande, C. M.; Harris, J. T. (ed.), Crane Conservation Strategy, International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin, USA.

Parilov, M. 2021. Khingansky State Nature Reserve News: 2021-01-06. Arkhara, Amur Oblast Available at:

Qian, F., Jiang, H., Yu, G., Yu, Y., Yang, J., Pang, S. and Pi R. 2012. Survey of breeding populations of the Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) in the Songnen Plain, northeastern China. Chinese Birds 3(3): 217–224.

Red-crowned Crane Conservancy 2021. List of confirmed numbers of wild Japanese cranes in winter. Available at:

Shi Zerong; Wu Lingxiang. 1987. Ecological observations on the hibernating of Sacred Crane. Chinese Journal of Zoology 22: 37-39.

Su Liying and Wang Qishan. 2010. The mainland population of the red-crowned crane faces growing threat. China Crane News 14(1): 3-8.

Su-Liying; Jiang Hongxing; Qian Fawen; Wang Hui; Shan Kai. 2008. The Red-crowned Crane wintering population declines during the last three winters in China. China Crane News 12(2): 12-18.

Su, L. and Zou, H. 2012. Status, threats and conservation needs for the continental population of the Red-crowned Crane. Chinese Birds 3(3): 147–164.

Teraoka, H., Kumagai, Y., Iwai, H., Haraguchi, K., Ohba, T., Nakai, K., Satoh, H., Sakamoto, M., Momose, K., Masatomi, H. and Hiraga, T. 2007. Heavy-metal contamination status of the Tancho in Japan – extensive mercury pollution. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 26: 307–312.

Wang Hui. 2008. Red-crowned Crane protection needs international cooperation. China Crane News 12(2): 18-20.

Wang Qi-Shan. 2008. Threats for Red-crowned Crane. China Crane News 12(2): 7-12.

Wang, C., Wang, G., Guo, Z., Dai, L., Liu, H., Li, Y., Chen, H., Zhao, Y., Zhang, Y. & Cheng, H. 2020. Effects of land-use change on the distribution of the wintering red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) in the coastal area of northern Jiangsu Province, China. Land Use Policy 90: p.104269.

Wang, Q and Li, F. 2008. Nest raising by Red-crowned Cranes in response to human-mediated flooding at Zhalong Nature Reserve, China. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(3): 610-613.

Wanga, Z., Li, Z., Beauchamp, G. and Jiang, Z. 2011. Flock size and human disturbance affect vigilance of endangered red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis). Biol. Conserv. 144: 101-105.

Zhou, D., Xia, X., Xu, W., Zhang, H., Qian, Z., Gao, J., Wang, Z. and Jiang, M. 2016. A growing captive population erodes the wild Red-crowned Cranes (Grus japonensis) in China. Avian Research 7(1): 1-8.

Zou Hong-Fei; Jin Hong-Yang; Wu Qing-Ming. 2008. Counting of Red-crowned Cranes in Liaoning Shuangtai Estuary, 2008. China Crane News 12(2): 6-7.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Crane Specialist Group

Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

International Crane Foundation Species Field Guide

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan

Status, Survey and Conservation Action Plan

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Grus japonensis. Downloaded from on 01/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/06/2023.