Red-crowned Crane Grus japonensis


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C1 A2ac+3c+4ac; C1+2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered C1
2013 Endangered C1
2012 Endangered C1
2009 Endangered C1
2008 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,080,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,760,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1830 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.3,050 individuals (range 2,800-3,300). Given the opportunities for missing individuals or double counting, three-year averages (for winters 2012-13, 2013-14 and 2014-15 have been calculated: China 580; Korea 1,000, and Hokkaido 1,470. The number of mature individuals is roughly 1,830 (J. Harris in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: The population in Japan has increased but that on the continent is declining due to a number of factors, most importantly the degradation of breeding and wintering sites. Apparent recent increases are likely to reflect increased concentrations at fewer sites, and the global population is thought to have declined by at least 20% over the past 37 years or three generations (J. Harris in litt. 2009).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Maoshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Wuda Lianchi Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hala Hai
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Jingpo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Niuxintaobao
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dabusu Hu
China (mainland) Yaojingzi Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi
China (mainland) Songhua Hu, Baishan Hu and Hongshi Hu
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Shuifeng Reservoir and middle reaches of Yalu Jiang
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Mangui
China (mainland) Hanma Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Genhe
China (mainland) Nuomin - Bila He - Dayangshu
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Daqinggou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidaihe
China (mainland) Qilihai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidagang Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changdao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qingdao-Rizhao coastal wetland and islands
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Weinan Sanhe wetlands
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area
Japan Lakes Notoro and Abashiri
Japan Lake Tofutsu
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Kiritappu marsh, Biwase bay
Japan Lake Akkeshi, Bekanbeushi marsh
Japan Kushiro marsh
Japan Lower Tokachi river
Japan Tokachi coastal lakes
North Korea Amrok River estuary
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Onchon field
North Korea Taedong River estuary
North Korea Unryul Kumsanpo
North Korea Daedong Bay
North Korea Ongjin Bay
North Korea Kangryong field
North Korea Chongdan field
North Korea Panmun field
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo
North Korea Orangchon River estuary
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
North Korea Kumya Bay
North Korea Ryonghung Gang estuary
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo
North Korea Lake Samilpo
North Korea Anbyon field
North Korea Mount Kumgang
South Korea Daeseongdong and Panmunjeom marshes
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Cheolwon basin
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Amur valley near Blagoveshensk
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
South Korea Yeonchon
China (mainland) Dazhanhe Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huanzidong
China (mainland) Qidong Northern Yangtze Estuary Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Grus japonensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2020.