NT
Red-cockaded Woodpecker Leuconotopicus borealis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Leuconotopicus borealis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Picoides.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2016 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2013 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable C1+2a(i)
2010 Vulnerable C1; C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable C1; C2a(i)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,630,000 medium
Number of locations 30 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 19000 medium estimated 2019
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 30 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated at 19,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2019).

Trend justification: This species underwent a large and statistically significant overall decrease estimated at 81% between 1970 and 2014 (Rosenberg et al. 2016), and James (1995) calculated a 23% decline in the number of clusters between the early 1980s and 1990. More recently, some large areas of Federal land have demonstrated increases in both the number of individuals and of clusters as a result of intensive management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2008, W. McDearman in litt. 2010). For example, between 1994 and 2002, populations at six military installations increased by as much as 50% (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2008). As a result of conservation action, several population may currently be stable, and could be increasing overall, although some subpopulations are known to still be in decline and losing their viability (W. McDearman in litt. 2010, Sauer et al. 2017, Jackson 2020), even despite intense conservation intervention (D. Wood in litt. 2020). It has been hypothesised that there may be a time-lag between reintroduction and translocation events and the actual population growth due to the fact that groups will be small at first, but increase their reproductive rate with time (D. Wood in litt. 2020). Until the situation is clarified, an on-going slow decline is precautionarily suspected, on the basis that further cluster losses may be occurring in some subpopulations.  






Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
USA Sand Hills State Forest (South Carolina Forest Commission)
USA Eglin Air Force Base
USA Apalachicola River and Forests
USA Ocala National Forest - Lake George
USA Osceola National Forest-Okefenokee Swamp
USA Avon Park Air Force Range-Bombing Range Ridge
USA Osceola Flatwoods and Prairies
USA St. Sebastian River State Buffer Preserve
USA Brosnan Forest
USA Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge
USA Francis Marion National Forest
USA Webb Wildlife Management Area
USA Hobcaw Barony
USA Shortleaf Pine-Bluestem Grass Ecosystem Management Area
USA Shugart/Felsenthal Red-cockaded Woodpecker
USA Medway Plantation
USA Fort Jackson Military Reservation
USA Apalachicola River and Forests
USA Talladega National Forest (Oakmulgee District)
USA Conecuh National Forest
USA Talladega NF (Shoal Creek/Talladega District) - Mt Longleaf NWR
USA Blackwater River State Forest
USA Red Hills Ecosystem
USA Camp Blanding-Jennings
USA Goethe State Forest
USA Withlacoochee State Forest (Citrus and Croom tracts)
USA Babcock-Webb Ecosystem
USA Big Cypress Swamp Watershed
USA Fort Benning Military Installation
USA Fort Stewart Military Installation
USA Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge
USA Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge
USA West Kisatchie
USA East Kisatchie
USA Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge
USA Bienville National Forest
USA Homochitto National Forest
USA Croatan Forest
USA Holly Shelter-Angola Bay
USA Sandhills East
USA Sandhills West
USA Palmetto Peartree-Buckridge
USA Sandy Island
USA Confidential
USA Lewis Ocean Bay Heritage Preserve
USA Piney Grove

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Dendroctonus frontalis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Glaucomys volans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Hylatomus pileatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Leuconotopicus borealis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2021.