NT
Red-cockaded Woodpecker Leuconotopicus borealis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Leuconotopicus borealis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Picoides.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2013 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable C1+2a(i)
2010 Vulnerable C1; C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable C1; C2a(i)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,630,000 medium
Number of locations 30 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 medium estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-9 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations 30 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.4 - - -

Population justification: The population has been estimated at 15,000 individuals (Rosenberg et al. 2016), having been estimated at 14,068 in 2003 (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 2003) and c. 14,500 based on 2008 data (W. McDearman in litt. 2010), thus the population is placed in the band for 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, assumed to be equivalent to c. 15,000-30,000 individuals in total.

Trend justification: This species underwent a large and statistically significant overall decrease estimated at 81% between 1970 and 2014 (Rosenberg et al. 2016), and James (1995) calculated a 23% decline in the number of clusters between the early 1980s and 1990. More recently, some large areas of Federal land have demonstrated increases in both the number of individuals and of clusters as a result of intensive management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2008, W. McDearman in litt. 2010). For example, between 1994 and 2002, populations increased by as much as 50% at six military installations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2008). As a result of conservation action, the overall population may currently be stable, and could be increasing overall, although some sub-populations are known to still be in decline and losing their viability (W. McDearman in litt. 2010). Until the situation is clarified, an on-going slow decline is precautionarily suspected, on the basis that further cluster losses may be occurring in some sub-populations.  







Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
USA Apalachicola River and Forests
USA Apalachicola River and Forests
USA Avon Park Air Force Range-Bombing Range Ridge
USA Babcock-Webb Ecosystem
USA Bienville National Forest
USA Big Cypress Swamp Watershed
USA Blackwater River State Forest
USA Brosnan Forest
USA Camp Blanding-Jennings
USA Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge
USA Conecuh National Forest
USA Confidential
USA Croatan Forest
USA East Kisatchie
USA Eglin Air Force Base
USA Fort Benning Military Installation
USA Fort Jackson Military Reservation
USA Fort Stewart Military Installation
USA Francis Marion National Forest
USA Goethe State Forest
USA Hobcaw Barony
USA Holly Shelter-Angola Bay
USA Homochitto National Forest
USA Lewis Ocean Bay Heritage Preserve
USA Medway Plantation
USA Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge
USA Ocala National Forest - Lake George
USA Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge
USA Osceola Flatwoods and Prairies
USA Osceola National Forest-Okefenokee Swamp
USA Palmetto Peartree-Buckridge
USA Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge
USA Piney Grove
USA Red Hills Ecosystem
USA Sand Hills State Forest (South Carolina Forest Commission)
USA Sandhills East
USA Sandhills West
USA Sandy Island
USA Shortleaf Pine-Bluestem Grass Ecosystem Management Area
USA Shugart/Felsenthal Red-cockaded Woodpecker
USA St. Sebastian River State Buffer Preserve
USA Talladega National Forest (Oakmulgee District)
USA Talladega NF (Shoal Creek/Talladega District) - Mt Longleaf NWR
USA Webb Wildlife Management Area
USA West Kisatchie
USA Withlacoochee State Forest (Citrus and Croom tracts)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Dendroctonus frontalis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Glaucomys volans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Hylatomus pileatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Leuconotopicus borealis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019.