Justification of Red List Category
This species is Vulnerable owing to its small and declining area of occupancy and population. Clearance of suitable Atlantic forest habitat continues and trapping for the cagebird trade is an additional threat.
The Brazilian National Red List (MMA 2014) estimated the total population to be less than 10,000 mature individuals. The population is therefore placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.
An ongoing population decline is suspected on the basis of habitat destruction and fragmentation and capture for the national and international pet trade.
Amazona rhodocorytha is now rare and local in the isolated Atlantic forest fragments of east Brazil. It was first discovered in north São Paulo in the early 1990s (P. Martuscelli in litt. 1994, 1999). The healthiest populations are now found in Espírito Santo, where the largest forest blocks remain (Klemann Júnior et al. 2008). It also occurs at three sites in south-east Bahia, and five in each of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. A disjunct population remains at São Miguel dos Campos, Alagoas, but recent surveys failed to find it elsewhere in the state (Klemann-Júnior et al. 2008). It was formerly abundant but, despite the recent accumulation of more records and localities, has clearly declined significantly. It is still fairly common at a few sites, most notably on Ilha Grande (R. B. Pineschi per C. Yamashita in litt. 2000), at Sooretama and adjacent Linhares; and surveys observed 2,295 birds in Espírito Santo in 2004-2006 (Klemann Júnior et al. 2008, L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2007, 2012).
It occurs primarily in lowland humid forests, but presumed seasonally displaced individuals have been found up to 1,000 m. It feeds on fruit, seeds, berries and buds procured in treetops, and has been recorded feeding in papaya, jackfruit, mangoes, cocoa, banana and coffee plantations (Klemann-Júnior 2006, L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2012). Eggs possibly hatch in October and pairs with fledglings have been observed in January.
Less than 10% of original forest cover remains in Bahia and Espírito Santo, and only 2% in Alagoas (Brown and Brown 1992, Conservation International 1995), primarily because of conversion to plantations and pastureland. Indeed, less than 1% of this species's overall habitat is now estimated to remain (Klemann-Júnior et al. 2008). In Rio de Janeiro, many important habitat fragments are being cleared, notably around Desengano State Park. The collapse of the cocoa economy in south Bahia has resulted in increased logging by landowners and the colonisation of reserves by former plantation workers (Snyder et al. 2000). If the seasonal displacement of birds is confirmed, this would multiply the problems of habitat loss. In the 1998-1999 breeding season, 174 nestlings were poached, mostly from reserves, for the national and international cage-bird trade (Brown and Brown 1992), while 664 individuals were recorded in captivity at the Centre for Reintroduction of Wild Animals in 2005-2006 and others were found in private cages (L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2007). Illegal trade is apparently the overriding threat to the species in Espírito Santo (Klemann-Júnior et al. 2008b). Souvenirs containing feathers have been seen for sale outside Monte Pascoal National Park (Sweeney 1996). It is considered a pest species in some papaya, coffee and cocoa plantations (Klemann-Júnior 2006, L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2012).
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II and protected under Brazilian law. Considered Endangered in Brazil until 2014 (Klemann-Júnior et al. 2008), it is now classed as Vulnerable (MMA 2014). It occurs in 14 reserves (Wege and Long 1995, R. B. Pineschi per C. Yamashita in litt. 2000), but most of these provide minimal habitat protection and none are effective against poaching. The ex situ population is managed under a European species survival scheme (Sweeney 1996) and Curitiba Zoo (L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2012), which together with the Loro Parque Fundación, Rare Species Conservatory Foundation and Idéia Ambiental, have successfully developed a captive breeding programme (Reinschmidt and Waugh 2005, L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2007, 2012).
35 cm. Bright green parrot. Bright red forecrown, orange lores and yellow below lores. Mid-crown grades to brownish-purple on hindcrown. Bluish to violet cheeks and throat. Dark scaling on neck and mantle. Darker wings, with red-based black primaries. Green tail with red markings and yellow tips. Immature has more restricted red on head. Voice Low-pitched and nasal crawA notes and other squeaks.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Symes, A., Wheatley, H., Capper, D., Sharpe, C.J., Khwaja, N.
Klemann Jr., L., Scherer Neto, P., Yamashita, C., Martuscelli, P.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Amazona rhodocorytha. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2019.