LC
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 64,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 107,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2016
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.495,000-605,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The European population is estimated at 70,100-120,000 pairs, which equates to 140,000-240,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2016). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 21.9 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Dominican Republic V Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Haiti V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malta N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Philippines U Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Nordfjord and adjacent valley
Greenland (to Denmark) Eqalummiut Nunaat-Nassuttuup Nunaa
Greenland (to Denmark) Ikkattoq fjord and islands
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Iceland Apavatn-Laugarvatn
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Lough Conn and Lough Cullin (including Moy valley)
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Sweden Bonden Island
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Zoommeer
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Surroundings of Kiyesh'yaur lake
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Falaise du Bessin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Chausey
France Littoral Augeron
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Loch Shin and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Machrihanish
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Kintyre Goose Roosts
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Po Delta
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Lakes Lesina and Varano
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland)
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Denmark Korshage, Hundested and surrounding sea area
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Flensborg Fjord and Nybøl Nor
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Venø and Venø Sund
Denmark Glomstrup Vig, Agerø, Munkholm and Katholm Odde, Lindholm, and Rotholme
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Nissum Bredning
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Derdap gorge
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Tanamunningen
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Skjernøy, South Skerries
Norway Froan
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Schlei
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Outer Wismarbucht
Germany Pomeranian bay
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Denmark Ronne Banke
Poland Pomeranian bay
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etang de Biguglia
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Saône
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Bonne Anse
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Canada Codroy Valley Estuary
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Point Pelee
Canada Holiday Beach / Big Creek CA
Canada Île de l'Est
Canada Banc de Carleton
Canada Île aux Basques et Les Razades
Canada Baie Comeau
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Babbage and Spring River Deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Bahamas Lee Stocking Island
Italy Venice lagoon
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Turkmenistan Mergen
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Ireland Ballysadare Bay
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Netherlands Delta Coast
Germany Sewage pond Ida near Othfresen
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Clew Bay
Ireland Lough Foyle
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
Denmark Dråby Vig and Buksør Odde
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Bahamas Joulter Cays
USA Prince William Sound
Denmark Rønne Banke
Moldova Dniester River between Naslavcea - Soroca
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Persfjorden - Hamningberg
Norway Været
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Solvær archipelago
Norway Persfjorden-Hamningberg
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Mexico Estero Santa Cruz
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vaindloo island
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Luitemaa
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Netherlands Haringvliet
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Nerpich'ye Lake and Kamchatka River delta
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Estonia Lahemaa
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Muddus
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Coastal area of Ystad – Hörte
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Mergus serrator. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/04/2020.