Razor-billed Curassow Mitu tuberosum


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened A3cd+4cd
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,710,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 300000 - 2000000 poor suspected 2021
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-25 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-25 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.32 - - -

Population justification: This species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996). Surveys have recorded the following population densities: 1.65 individuals /km2 in an unhunted area and 0.02 individuals /km2 in a hunted site in northeastern Peru (Begazo and Bodmer 1998), 1.8 individuals per km2 in unhunted forest in Brazil (Peres et al. 2003), 0.02-1.77 individuals /km2 in Bolivia (Martínez and Ayala 2013), 1.63 individuals /km2 in terra firme, 3.45 individuals /kmin varzea and 1.11 individuals /kmin igapo forests in Brazil (Haugaasen and Peres 2008), 0.62 and 2.12 individuals /kmin hunted terra firme forest, 5.9, 8.9 and 7.89 individuals /kmin unhunted terra firme forest and 12.18 and 2.73 individuals /kmin seasonally flooded forest in Peru (Endo et al. 2010), and 11.3 (7.4–17.3) individuals /kmin unhunted forest in northern Peru (Barrio 2011).

Based on the first quartile and median of the above population densities, an estimated area of habitat in 2000 of 3,670,000 km2 (Global Forest Watch 2021) and assuming between 10 and 40% of habitat is occupied, the population size is tentatively suspected to fall within the range 500,000 - 3,000,000 individuals. This may roughly equate to 300,000 - 2,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Over 20 years from 2000-2020, approximately 11% of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover was lost from within the species's range (Global Forest Watch 2021). Extrapolating this rate over three generations (25 years) to 2020, it is estimated that approximately 13% of tree cover was lost from the species's range. Based on the rate of tree cover loss that occurred over 2016-2020 (Global Forest Watch 2021), it is projected that up to 19% of tree cover may be lost from the species's range over the next 25 years.

Although the species is dependent on forest habitat, the link between habitat loss and its population size is poorly known. The species's abundance is also impacted by hunting in parts of the range (Begazo and Bodmer 1998, Peres et al. 2003, Peres and Palacios 2007, Barrio 2011), which may be contributing to declines.

Overall, the species's population size is suspected to have undergone a reduction of 8-18% over the past three generations, and it is suspected to undergo a reduction of 10-25% over three generations into the future.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Estrella Fluvial Inírida

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1350 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Mitu tuberosum. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2022.