NT
Rarotonga Fruit-dove Ptilinopus rarotongensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened B1a+2a; D1+2
2016 Vulnerable D1+2
2012 Vulnerable D1+2
2008 Vulnerable D1; D2
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,900 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 152
Number of locations 2-5 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor estimated 2021
Population trend Stable poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.02 - - -

Population justification: The species is common throughout the makatea (limestone forest) and inland of Atiu (McCormack 2007). On Rarotonga, it is restricted to the inland mountains (M. O'Brien pers. comm. 2021).

The population on Rarotonga is considered likely to exceed 500 individuals, with perhaps twice that number present on Atiu (McCormack 1997, J. Pilgrim in litt. 2002, G. McCormack in litt. 2007), which implies a total population size of at least c. 1,000 mature individuals. Based on a range area of 75 km2, the first and third quartile recorded population densities of congeners (10 and 47 individuals per km2, respectively), and assuming the range to be 75-95% occupied, the population size may be suspected to fall in the range 560-3,400 individuals, roughly equating to 370-2,300 mature individuals. The population size is therefore here placed in the band 250-2,499 mature individuals, with a best estimate in the band 1,000 - 2,499 mature individuals.

There is no evidence of inter-island movements (Baptista et al. 1997), so there are assumed to be two isolated subpopulations. The largest subpopulation is found on Atiu (McCormack 1997, J. Pilgrim in litt. 2002, G. McCormack in litt. 2007).

Trend justification: In 1973, the species was common on both range islands, with an estimated Rarotonga population of 2,000 - 3,000 individuals (Holyoak and Thibault 1984). In 1987, the population on Rarotonga was estimated at fewer than 100 individuals, and the total population was estimated at 350-1,500 individuals (Pratt et al. 1987). The species is now common in the inland mountains of Rarotonga and throughout the makatea (limestone forest) and inland of Atiu (McCormack 2007), and the population on Rarotonga probably exceeds 500 individuals, and with perhaps twice that number present on Atiu (McCormack 1997, J. Pilgrim in litt. 2002, G. McCormack in litt. 2007).

There is no evidence for any population decline (G. McCormack in litt. 2007), so the species's population size is assumed to be stable.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Cook Islands N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cook Islands Takitumu Conservation Area, Rarotonga
Cook Islands Atiu

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 652 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Acridotheres tristis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ptilinopus rarotongensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022.