Pygmy Hanging-parrot Loriculus exilis


Justification of Red List Category
Perhaps greatly overlooked, but almost certainly genuinely scarce, this tiny parrot is restricted to lowland forest so must undoubtedly be declining at least moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss and degradation. It is therefore classified as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as uncommon to rare (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends, but the species is suspected to be declining at a moderately rapid rate, owing to habitat degradation.

Distribution and population

Loriculus exilis is restricted to Sulawesi, Indonesia, where although it is clearly inconspicuous and easily overlooked, records are so few that it is characterised as generally very uncommon and local (BirdLife International 2001).


It inhabits primary lowland and hill forest and mangroves up to 1,200 m.


It is apparently nomadic, so that the extensive forest destruction within its elevation range in recent decades may have caused a decline in its population. There was, at least formerly, limited trapping for the bird trade.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess population size. Regularly monitor at certain sites throughout its range to determine population trends. Attempt to make sense of population and trend data by studying the species's movements. Protect significant areas of primary lowland forest across its range.


Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Loriculus exilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/08/2020.