LC
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Microcarbo pygmaeus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Phalacrocorax.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2005 Least Concern
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,660,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.1 - - -

Population justification: The species has a large global population estimated to be 48,000-137,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 37,600-50,400 pairs, which equates to 75,100-101,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015) this is considerably higher than the 28,000-39,000 pairs reported in 2004 (BirdLife International 2004) and the 13,000 pairs estimated in 1996. The population is therefore placed in the band 45,000-139,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have stable trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria V Extinct Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Possibly Extinct Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
North Macedonia Lake Ohrid
Montenegro Lake Sasko
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Serbia Labudovo okno
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Malko Sharkovo reservoir
Bulgaria Vardim Island
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Island near Gorni Tzibar
Bulgaria Pyasachnik Reservoir
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Parches-Somova wetland
Romania Comana
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia River Drava
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Küçükçekmece Basin
Turkey İznik Lake
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Turkey Kocaçay Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Lesser Menderes Delta
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Güllük Bay
Turkey Köyceğiz Lake
Turkey Eğirdir Lake
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Turkey Gavur Lake
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Moldova Lower Dniester River
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece River Axios
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Lake Pamvotida (Ioannina)
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lake Doïrani
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Adzhi Lake
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Kagul lake
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Snake island
Italy Laga mountains
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Carso
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Lake Ohrid and surrounding area
Albania Lake Megali Prespa
Albania Lake Mikri Prespa
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Velipoja
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Black Sea
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Romania Lake Tataru
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans
North Macedonia Bistrentsi fishponds
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Ukraine River Danube
Turkey Terkos Basin
Turkey Karkamış
Turkey İğdır Plain
Turkey Çaldıran Plain
Israel Hula valley
Israel Zevulun valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iraq Haur Om am Nyaj
Iraq Central Marshes
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Syria Euphrates valley
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Sulakskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Mekhteb reservoir
Georgia Alazani Valley
Georgia Jandari Lake
Georgia Lower Kura Valley
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Golia Island
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Armenia Metsamor
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Turkey Bendimahi Delta
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Iran, Islamic Republic of Abbas-abad dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iraq Tharthar Lake and Al-Dhebaeji Fields
Iraq Samara Wetlands
Iraq Abu Dalaf and Shari lake
Iraq Attariya Plains
Israel Carmel coast
Syria Tual al-'Abba
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island
Bulgaria Svishtov-Belene Lowland
Bulgaria Ibisha Island
Bulgaria Chengene Skele
Bulgaria Konush Reservoir
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Plovdiv Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Rozov Kladenets Reservoir
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Orsoya Fish-ponds
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Tajikistan Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Italy River Sesia heronries
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Muskinata
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Syria Baath Lake
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Turkey Southern Euphrates Valley and Birecik Plains
Serbia Becej fishpond
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Iraq Hawizeh
Russia (European) Tyuleni island
Romania Balta Vederoasa
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Confluenţa Olt - Dunăre
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Olt valley
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Suhaia
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Turkey Sapanca Lake
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Serbia Akumulacija Gruza
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Serbia Titelski breg
Italy Punta Alberete, Canna Valley, San Vitale Pinewood, and Pialassa of Baiona
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Albania Prespa and surrounding area
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Albania Skadar Lake - Buna River - Velipoje - Vau i Dejes
Serbia Carska Bara
Serbia Kljucko Podunavlje

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Microcarbo pygmaeus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/06/2020.