LC
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Microcarbo pygmaeus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Phalacrocorax.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2005 Least Concern
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,780,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,690,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.1 - - -

Population justification: The species has a large global population estimated to be 48,000-137,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 37,600-50,400 pairs, which equates to 75,100-101,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015) this is considerably higher than the 28,000-39,000 pairs reported in 2004 (BirdLife International 2004) and the 13,000 pairs estimated in 1996. The population is therefore placed in the band 45,000-139,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have stable trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria V Extinct Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Possibly Extinct Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Lake Megali Prespa
Albania Lake Mikri Prespa
Albania Lake Ohrid and surrounding area
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Velipoja
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Armenia Metsamor
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Chengene Skele
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Ibisha Island
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Konush Reservoir
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Orsoya Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Bulgaria Plovdiv Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island
Bulgaria Rozov Kladenets Reservoir
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Svishtov-Belene Lowland
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Georgia Alazani Valley
Georgia Jandari Lake
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Evros delta
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Chimaditis and Lake Zazaris
Greece Lake Doirani
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lake Kastoria (Orestiada)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Mikri Prespa and Lake Megali Prespa
Greece Lake Vegoritis and Lake Petron
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Pinios delta
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece River Axios
Greece Strymon delta
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Israel Hula valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Zevulun valley
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Venice lagoon
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
North Macedonia Lake Ohrid
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Balta Vederoasa
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Comana
Romania Confluenţa Olt - Dunăre
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Olt valley
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Suhaia
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Mekhteb reservoir
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Slovenia River Drava
Syria Euphrates valley
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Tajikistan Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Bendimahi Delta
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Çaldıran Plain
Turkey Eğirdir Lake
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Gavur Lake
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Güllük Bay
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey İğdır Plain
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey İznik Lake
Turkey Karkamış
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Kocaçay Delta
Turkey Köyceğiz Lake
Turkey Küçükçekmece Basin
Turkey Lesser Menderes Delta
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Sapanca Lake
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Turkey Southern Euphrates Valley and Birecik Plains
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Terkos Basin
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Muskinata
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Ukraine Kagul lake
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine River Danube
Ukraine Snake island
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes major breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Microcarbo pygmaeus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2019.