Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio


Alonso-Andicoberry, C.; García-Villada, L.; Lopez-Rodas, V.; Costas, E. 2002. Catastrophic mortality of flamingos in a Spanish national park caused by cyanobacteria. Veterinary Record 151: 706-707.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

de Vergara, C.V.G. and Ripoll, M.G. 1999. Species Action Plan for the Purple Gallinule Porphyrio porphyrio in Europe. BirdLife International.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Dowding, J. E.; Murphy, E. C.; Veitch, C. R. 1999. Brodifacuom residues in target and non-target species following an aerial poisoning operation on Motuihe Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 23(2): 207-214.

Gaidet, N., Dodman, T., Caron, A., Balanca, G., Desvaux, S., Goutard, F., Cattoli, G., Lamarque, F., Hagemeijer, W. and Monicat, F. 2007. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13(4): 626-629.

Galvin, J. W.; Hollier, T. J.; Bodinnar, K. D.; Bunn, C. M. 1985. An outbreak of botulism in wild waterbirds in Southern Australia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 21(4): 347-350.

Haselmayer, J., Jamieson, I. G. 2001. Increased predation on pukeko eggs after the application of rabbit control measures. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 25(1): 89-93.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C.; Stroud, D (ed.), Waterbirds around the World, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Taylor, B.; van Perlo, B. 1998. Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Porphyrio porphyrio. Downloaded from on 05/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/03/2024.