Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 13,600,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 20,600,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 7.6 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to be 205,000-295,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 56,700-83,000 pairs, which equates to 113,000-166,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 200,000-299,999 individuals.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Populations elsewhere are stable or unknown. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Austria extant vagrant
Belarus extant vagrant
Belgium extant native yes
Canada extant native yes yes
Cape Verde extant vagrant
Croatia extant vagrant
Czechia extant vagrant
Denmark extant native yes yes
Estonia extant native yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes yes
Germany extant native yes
Greece extant vagrant
Greenland (to Denmark) extant native yes
Hungary extant vagrant
Iceland extant native yes
Ireland extant native yes
Italy extant vagrant
Kazakhstan extant vagrant
Latvia extant vagrant
Libya extant vagrant
Malta extant vagrant
Montenegro extant vagrant
Morocco extant vagrant
Netherlands extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Russia extant native yes yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Serbia extant vagrant
Slovakia extant vagrant
Slovenia extant vagrant
Spain extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant vagrant
Ukraine extant vagrant
United Kingdom extant native yes yes
USA extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Iceland Stokkseyri-Eyrarbakki
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iceland Skerjafjordur
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Melrakkasletta
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (European) Bezymyannaya and Gribovaya Bays and adjoining waters
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Sweden Tavvavouma
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada Île Rouge
Sweden Weather Islands
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Norway Froan
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Norway Reisa
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Dovrefjell

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Calidris maritima. Downloaded from on 25/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/02/2024.