LC
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 131,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 109,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 180000-380000 poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.270,000-570,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 180,000-380,000 mature individuals. The European population is estimated at 31,600-46,000 pairs, which equates to 63,100-92,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is estimated to be decreasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Neusiedler See
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Botswana Okavango Delta
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Orsoya Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Cape Verde Kapok tree, Boa Entrada
Cape Verde Mahoganies at Banana, Ribeira Montanha, Ilha de Santiago
Congo Lake Télé Community Reserve
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Ngiri
Croatia Cesma River Carp Fishponds
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Middle Drava River
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne Sud
France Camargue
France Crau
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Etang de Capestang
France Etang de Lindre
France Etang des Landes
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France La Dombes
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Plaine du Forez
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Vallée de la Garonne : méandre de Grisolles
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Bobenheim-Roxheimer Altrhein with Silbersee
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, southern oxbow
Germany Heerter See
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Mechtersheim clay pit
Germany Neupotzer Altrhein
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Wörther Altrhein and Wörther Rheinhafen
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Indonesia Danau Tempe
Indonesia Dataran Banjir Ogan Komering
Indonesia Pulau Rambut
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Italy Adda Sud Park heronries
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Lake Massaciuccoli
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Lomellina and Heronries of Pavia province
Italy Ostiglia Swamps
Italy Po Delta
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Netherlands Banks of River Linge
Netherlands Naardermeer
Netherlands Nieuwkoopse Plassen & De Haeck
Netherlands Zouweboezem
Netherlands Zwarte Meer
Philippines Agusan Marsh
Philippines Manila Bay
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Portugal Barrinha de Esmoriz/Lagoa de Paramos
Portugal Lagoa Pequena
Portugal Minho and Coura estuaries
Portugal Mondego Estuary
Portugal Murta dam
Portugal Paul de Arzila
Portugal Paul de Madriz
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo
Portugal Paul do Taipal
Portugal Pera marsh
Portugal Ria de Aveiro
Portugal Sado estuary
Portugal Salinas de Alverca e do Forte da Casa
Portugal Santo André and Sancha lagoons
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Vilamoura
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Comana
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Suhaia
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Slovakia Senné
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Azután reservoir
Spain Bornos reservoir
Spain Castrejón reservoir
Spain Cinco Villas ponds
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Ebro delta
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Las Cañas lake
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Pego-Oliva marshes
Spain Pitillas and Dos Reinos lagoons
Spain Prat de Cabanes-Torreblanca
Spain River Ebro ox-bow lakes
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Sariñena lake and La Estación pond
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Thailand Thale Noi
Thailand Thung Tha Laad
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Meriç Delta
Ukraine Bilosarajs'ka peninsula
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Dniprodzerzhyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Karachunivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Konka river mouth
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Vietnam U Minh Thuong

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ardea purpurea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/04/2020.