LC
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 131,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 109,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 180000-380000 poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.270,000-570,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 180,000-380,000 mature individuals. The European population is estimated at 31,600-46,000 pairs, which equates to 63,100-92,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is estimated to be decreasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bardaca
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Cyprus Klidhes Islands
Cyprus Akhna dam
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Portugal Santo André and Sancha lagoons
Portugal Murta dam
Portugal Sado estuary
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo
Portugal Paul de Madriz
Portugal Paul de Arzila
Portugal Ria de Aveiro
Portugal Paul do Taipal
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Ibisha Island
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Comana
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gruia
Belgium Zegge
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium Zwin
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Göksu Delta
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece River Axios
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Lakes Trichonis and Lysimachia
Netherlands Zwarte Meer
Netherlands Naardermeer
Netherlands Nieuwkoopse Plassen & De Haeck
Netherlands Zouweboezem
Netherlands Banks of River Linge
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Kolon Lake
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Velence Lake–Dinnyés Lake
Hungary Hanság
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Pacsmag Lakes of Regöly
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Kesznyéten
Hungary Inner Somogy
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Bornos reservoir
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Wetlands at south Córdoba
Spain Marmolejo reservoir-La Ropera
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain River Ebro ox-bow lakes
Spain Las Cañas lake
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Pego-Oliva marshes
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Cinco Villas ponds
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Spain Sariñena lake and La Estación pond
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Prat de Cabanes-Torreblanca
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain El Moro marshes
Spain Castrejón reservoir
Spain Azután reservoir
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Pitillas and Dos Reinos lagoons
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Bilosarajs'ka peninsula
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Bodakivs'ke marsh
Ukraine Velyke marsh
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dgulyn lake
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Ingul river valley
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne Sud
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Etang des Landes
France Etang de Capestang
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Boussens à Carbonne
France Vallée de la Garonne : Palayre et environs
France Vallée de la Garonne : méandre de Grisolles
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Crau
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Marais de Brière
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Plaine du Forez
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Pointe de Grave
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Manteyer
France Basse vallée du Var
France Ile de la Platière
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Fucecchio marsh
Italy Lake Massaciuccoli
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy Adda Sud Park heronries
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Iseo peatlands
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Lomellina and Heronries of Pavia province
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Colostrai pool
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Lake Candia
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Lake Viverone
Italy Ticino river
Italy Sentina
Albania Drini Delta
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Parížske marshes
Slovakia Medzibodrožie
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Hördter Rheinaue
Germany Gimbsheim-Eicher Altrhein und Fischsee
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heerter See
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Botswana Okavango Delta
Cape Verde Kapok tree, Boa Entrada
Cape Verde Mahoganies at Banana, Ribeira Montanha, Ilha de Santiago
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Ukraine Karachunivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Konka river mouth
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Portugal Pera marsh
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Ukraine Dniprodzerzhyns'ke reservoir
Vietnam U Minh Thuong
Thailand Thung Tha Laad
Thailand Thale Noi
Philippines Manila Bay
Philippines Agusan marsh
Indonesia Dataran Banjir Ogan Komering
Indonesia Pulau Rambut
Indonesia Danau Tempe
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Golia Island
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Portugal Minho and Coura estuaries
Portugal Barrinha de Esmoriz/Lagoa de Paramos
Portugal Mondego Estuary
Portugal Lagoa Pequena
Portugal Salinas de Alverca e do Forte da Casa
Portugal Vilamoura
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Iles d'Hyères
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs
France Forêt de la Reine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gordeh Git and Mamiyand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Congo Lake Télé Community Reserve
Oman Barr al Hikman
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Orsoya Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Italy Taro river
Italy Ostiglia Swamps
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Samars'ka bay
Ukraine Vorskla river valley, near vv. Ivanivka-Kashans'ke, Kurikovka
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Serbia Carska Bara
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Netherlands Weerribben
Netherlands De Wieden
Turkey Marmara Lake
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Middle Drava River
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Cesma River Carp Fishponds
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Italy Orti-Bottagone
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Greece Lake Voulkaria
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Rhine flats Elchesheim-Karlsruhe
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, northern oxbow
Germany Eich-Gimbsheimer Altrhein, southern oxbow
Germany Mechtersheim clay pit
Germany Bobenheim-Roxheimer Altrhein with Silbersee
Germany Neupotzer Altrhein
Germany Wörther Altrhein and Wörther Rheinhafen
Côte d'Ivoire Monogaga Classified Forest
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Suhaia
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Črete
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Serbia Sitnica
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Ngiri
Italy Punta Alberete, Canna Valley, San Vitale Pinewood, and Pialassa of Baiona
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Netherlands Boezems Kinderdijk
Mauritania Lac de Mâl
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Philippines Ragay Gulf
Philippines Lake Naujan
Philippines Lake Lanao
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Senegal Djoudj wetlands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ardea purpurea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2020.