Puerto Rican Amazon Amazona vittata


Anon. 2013a. Record breeding season for the Puerto Rican Parrot. Cyanopsitta 103: 5.

Anon. 2013b. Puerto Rican Parrots dispersing. PsittaScene 25(1): 9.

Anon. 2014a. Dritte Brutpopulation der Puerto-Rico-Amazone bei Maricao geplant. Papageien 27(2): 40.

Anon. 2014b. Puerto-Ricö-Amazonen brüten wieder außerhalb der Schutzgebiete. Papageien 27(10): 328.

Arendt, W. J. 2000. Impact of nest predators, competitors, and ectoparasites on Pearly-eyed Thrashers, with comments on the potential implications for Puerto Rican Parrot recovery. Ornitologia Neotropical 11: 13-63.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Breining, G. 2009. A fighting chance. Audubon: 91-95.

Coto, D. 2013. Report: Puerto Rican parrot makes major comeback. Available at: (Accessed: 10/10/2013).

Davis, E. 2000. Regional reports and recovery updates: Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata). Endangered Species Bulletin 25: 27.

Engeman, R.; Whisson, D.; Quinn, J.; Cano, F.; Quiñones, P.; White, T.H. 2006. Monitoring invasive mammalian predator populations sharing habitat with the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot Amazona vittata. Oryx 40(1): 95-102.

Engeman, R.M., Shwiff, S.A., Cano F., and Constantin, B.U. 2003. An economic assessment of the potential for predator management to benefit Puerto Rican parrots. Ecological Economics 46: 283-292.

Gilardi, J. 2018. Recovery at Río Abajo. Psittascene 30(3): 38-41.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2011. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 9.0 (September 2011). Available at:

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Meyers, J. M. 1996. Survival of radio-collared nestling Puerto Rican Parrots. Wilson Bulletin 108: 159-163.

Milpacher, D. 2017. Severe storms a serious challenge for Puerto Rican Amazon. Available at: (Accessed: 21/06/2018).

Paravisini-Gebert, L. 2018. The Parrots of the Caribbean. ReVista Harvard Review of Latin America Spring/Summer 2018: 45-47.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.

Snyder, N. F. R.; Wiley, J. W.; Kepler, C. B. 1987. The parrots of Luquillo: natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Los Angeles.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Thompson, J.J. 2004. An age-structured population model of the Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata). Ornitologia Neotropical 15: 289-297.

Valentin, R. 2009. Ups and downs breeding Puerto Rican Parrots. PsittaScene 21(2): 16-18.

Velez-Valentin, J.; Boyd, J. D. 2006. The Puerto Rican Parrot recovery project. AFA Watchbird 33(2): 59-62.

White, T. H.; Brown, G. G.; Collazo, J. A. 2006. Artificial cavities and nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a multiscale assessment. Avian Diseases 1(3): art5.

White, T. H.; Llerandi-Román, I.; Cano, F. 2012. Partnering for Parrots. Endangered Species Bulletin July-August.

White, T.H.; Collazo, J. A.; Vilella, F.J. 2005. Survival of captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots released in the Caribbean National Forest. Condor 107: 424-432.

Further resources

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recovery Programme

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Amazona vittata. Downloaded from on 25/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/02/2024.