CR
Puerto Rican Amazon Amazona vittata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
D D D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Critically Endangered D
2018 Critically Endangered D
2016 Critically Endangered D
2015 Critically Endangered D
2013 Critically Endangered D
2012 Critically Endangered D
2010 Critically Endangered D1
2009 Critically Endangered D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16 good
Number of locations 2 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1-49 medium suspected 2018
Population trend Increasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 14.14 - - -

Population justification: As of 2011, the population numbered c.50-70 individuals spread over two areas, roughly equivalent to 33-47 mature individuals. In 2013, this had increased to c.80-100 individuals in the wild (64-84 at Río Abajo and 15-20 at El Yunque). However, following Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017 large areas of habitat were destroyed and the impact on the species's population remains uncertain. The population at El Yunque has not yet been found in its former range, and 17 out of 22 individuals that had recently been released with transmitters have been found dead (Paravisini-Gebert 2018); there are not currently believed to be any birds in the wild in this region. The Río Abajo population has fared much better and persisted successfully despite the hurricanes' impacts, comprising 126-139 individuals by the end of 2019 (M. Lopez-Flores in litt. 2019). The entire Río Abajo population however is derived from released birds, which are not counted as mature individuals until they have bred successfully in the wild (IUCN 2011). Successful breeding has been recorded, including post-Hurricane Maria (Gilardi 2018), and the size and range of the flock has been witnessed to be increasing however, due to the late age of first breeding in this species, it is likely that the majority of the population still comprises introduced individuals (Breining 2009; Valentin 2009; T. White in litt. 2012). As a result, the total number of mature individuals remains uncertain and is tentatively assumed to remain below 50 due to the large proportion of reintroduced individuals and severe impacts of Hurricanes Irma and Maria.

Trend justification: An increase of 1-19% was estimated to have occurred over the last ten years, based on regular counts of the total wild population, largely as the result of successful reintroductions from the Iguaca and Río Abajo aviaries (M. Lopez-Flores in litt. 2019). However, following the impacts of Hurricanes Irma and Maria that hit the island in 2017, the population in El Yunque is considered to have been lost (Paravisini-Gebert 2018) whilst contrastingly, the population in Río Abajo persists and is likely increasing (Milpacher 2017; M. Lopez-Flores in litt. 2019). The overall impact of these hurricanes, and concurrent ongoing reintroductions, therefore remains uncertain and the population trend is considered unclear.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Puerto Rico (to USA) Bosque Estatal de Rio Abajo
Puerto Rico (to USA) El Yunque
Puerto Rico (to USA) Karso del Norte
Puerto Rico (to USA) Caribbean National Forest
Puerto Rico (to USA) Caribbean National Forest

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 200 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Herpestes auropunctatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Buteo jamaicensis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Margarops fuscatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Amazona vittata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2021.