NT
Protea Canary Crithagra leucoptera



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Crithagra leucoptera (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Serinus and listed as S. leucopterus following Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2017 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 119,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 250000-600000 mature individuals medium estimated 2015
Population trend decreasing - inferred 2019-2029
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-25% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-25% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-25% - - -
Generation length 2.87 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 100% - - -

Population justification: Lee and Barnard (2016) estimate the population at 395,257-831,202 individuals. This roughly equates to 263,500-554,130 mature individuals, placed here in the range 250,000-600,000 mature individuals.

Based on its dispersal ability and ability to tolerate burned Fynbos (Taylor et al. 2015), it is assumed that this species functions as one subpopulation.

Trend justification: The species is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid decline, as implied by range and reporting rate reductions between Southern African Bird Atlas Projects (SABAP). Lee and Barnard (2016) place the range and reporting rate reduction between SABAPs (SABAP1 1987-1992; SABAP2 2007-ongoing) as 32%, though Lee et al. (2017) place the range decline at 24%. These rates are equivalent to a rate of decline of c.11-15% over 3 generations. The species is also likely experiencing habitat degradation from the spread of alien vegetation within the Fynbos biome, and from increases in temperature and changes in fire patterns due to climate change (Lee and Bernard 2016). It therefore suspected that the rate of decline overall falls in the band of 20-25%, and this decline is suspected to continue into the future as climate change continues.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
South Africa extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
South Africa Kouga - Baviaanskloof Complex
South Africa Cedarberg - Koue Bokkeveld complex
South Africa Swartberg mountains
South Africa Boland Mountains
South Africa Anysberg Nature Reserve
South Africa Outeniqua mountains
South Africa Langeberg Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry marginal resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Crithagra leucoptera. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/protea-canary-crithagra-leucoptera on 26/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 26/02/2024.