NT
Protea Canary Crithagra leucoptera



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Crithagra leucoptera (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Serinus and listed as S. leucopterus following Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Near Threatened A2bc+3bc+4bc
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 136,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250000-600000 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 25-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 25-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: Lee and Barnard (2015) estimate the population at 395,257-831,202 individuals. This roughly equates to 263,500-554,130 mature individuals, placed here in the range 250,000-600,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid decline, as implied by range and reporting rate reductions between Southern African Bird Atlas Projects (SABAP). Lee and Barnard (2015) place the range and reporting rate reduction between SABAPs (SABAP1 1987-1992; SABAP2 2007-ongoing) as 32%, though Lee et al. (2017) place the range decline at 24%. The time between SABAPs is also greater than the 3 generation period for this species (11.4 years), and it has also been suggested that the species may be under-reported in SABAPs (see Taylor et al. 2015). Therefore, the rate of decline is assessed as being <30% over 3 generations, but it is suspected to approach this rate. Given that climate change may be having a particular impact on this species, this decline is suspected to continue into the future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
South Africa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
South Africa Anysberg Nature Reserve
South Africa Boland Mountains
South Africa Cedarberg - Koue Bokkeveld complex
South Africa Kouga - Baviaanskloof Complex
South Africa Langeberg Mountains
South Africa Outeniqua mountains
South Africa Swartberg mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry marginal resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Crithagra leucoptera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/06/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/06/2018.