CR
Principe Thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Melo, M.; Bowie, R.C.K.; Voelker, G.; Dallimer, M.; Collar, N.J.; Jones, P.J. 2010. Multiple lines of evidence support the recognition of a very rare bird species: the Principe Thrush. Journal of Zoology (London) 282(2): 120-129.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii) B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2016 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2013 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(ii)
2011 Critically Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2008 Not Recognised
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 60 good
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 good estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 90-94 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.3 - - -

Population justification: Data collected during a survey of Príncipe in 2007 were used to derive a population estimate of 364 individuals (with a 95% confidence interval of 186-887) (Dallimer et al. 2010). However, the authors consider this to be an overestimate because the species does not occupy all areas of primary forest and the data may have been biased by the species's confiding nature and habit of readily approaching humans. Thus, it is estimated that there are fewer than 250 mature individuals (Dallimer et al. 2010).

Trend justification: The population is considered to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss and perhaps hunting pressure. However, the rate of decline has not been estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
São Tomé e Príncipe Príncipe forests

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 400 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 0 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Turdus xanthorhynchus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/05/2020.