Plumbeous Antvireo Dysithamnus plumbeus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
2016 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c; B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 20 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 141,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 500
Number of locations 11-50 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-15000 poor inferred 2021
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-10 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-10 - - -
Number of subpopulations 11-20 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.4 - - -

Population justification: It is generally considered uncommon and local, and appears to be common at very few sites. A study in the Rio Doce State Park found that it was 69% less abundant in an area of secondary forest than in an area of primary forest (Loures-Ribeiro et al. 2011).

Based on a modelled population density of approximately 7.6 individuals per square kilometre (Santini et al. 2019) and the estimated remaining tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover in the known range in 2020 (c.2000 km2; Global Forest Watch 2021), the maximum population size in the known range is inferred to be 15,200 individuals, roughly equivalent to 10,100 mature individuals. The species has specific micro-habitat requirements (D. Lima in litt. 2020), so it is unlikely to occupy all available forest. However, it has been recorded at several further localities in recent years (WikiAves 2018) and so there may be further small undiscovered populations. The population size is therefore placed in the band 2,500 - 15,000 mature individuals.

The number of subpopulations is not known, but the remaining primary forest within the species's range is highly fragmented, so there are assumed to be 11-20 subpopulations based on a visual assessment of the known range. The largest remaining forest fragment with recent records is Sooretama, with approximately 60 km2 of tree cover (Global Forest Watch 2021). Based on the above density estimate, the largest subpopulation is estimated to have less than 1,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is reported to have become less common in the Sooretama Biological Reserve (D. Lima in litt. 2020). Remote-sensed data on tree cover loss indicates that over ten years from 2010 to 2020, approximately 9% of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover was lost within the species's extant and possibly extinct range (Global Forest Watch 2021). The rate of tree cover loss within the species's known extant range was lower, with approximately 3% lost over 2010-2020 (Global Forest Watch 2021). The species prefers undisturbed forest and is therefore inferred to be declining, and to have undergone a reduction of 1-9% over the past ten years. Based on the average rate of forest loss over the past five years, approximately 10% of tree cover is suspected to be lost within the species's extant and possibly extinct range over the next ten years. The species's population is therefore suspected to undergo a reduction of up to 10% over the next ten years.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Parque Estadual do Rio Doce
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares
Brazil Serra do Teimoso
Brazil Santa Teresa
Brazil Reserva Biológica de Duas Bocas
Brazil Cafundó e Bananal do Norte
Brazil Serra Bonita
Brazil Bandeira / Macarani
Brazil Laranjal / Miracema
Brazil Caratinga
Brazil Jequié
Brazil Jaguaquara

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 900 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Dysithamnus plumbeus. Downloaded from on 02/04/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 02/04/2023.