NT
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2012 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2008 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2006 Near Threatened
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Vulnerable
2001 Near Threatened
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass 53.59999847 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,160,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,410,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 8000 good estimated 2006
Population trend Increasing good observed -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -

Population justification: The latest census recorded 3,320 mature individuals on the Atlantic coast (41%), 4,662 on the northern Great Plains and prairies (58%), and 110 in the Great Lakes (1%). This totals c.8,100 breeding individuals, equivalent to a population of c.12,000-13,000 individuals in total.

Trend justification: Although the population has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (Butcher and Niven 2007), the overall population has been increasing since 1991 as a result of intensive conservation management.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) V Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bahamas Driggs Hill to Mars Bay
Bahamas Grand Bahama Southern Shore
Bahamas Joulter Cays
Bahamas Kemp Cay to Pigeon Cay
Bahamas South Beach Tidal Flats
Bahamas Stafford Creek to Andros Town
Canada Chaplin Lake
Canada East Lake Diefenbaker
Canada Manitou Lake Area (includes Reflex, Freshwater, Wells, Colette and Cipher Lakes)
Canada North, West, and East Shoal Lakes
Canada PEI National Park
Canada Quill Lakes
Canada Willow Bunch Lake
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas
Cuba Cayos Romano - Cruz - Megano Grande
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila
Mexico Lagoon Mother
Nicaragua Bluefields Bay and adjacent landscape
USA Altamaha River Delta
USA Assateague Island
USA Barataria Terrebonne
USA Barrier Island/Lagoon System
USA Big Marco Pass Shoal
USA Cape Lookout National Seashore
USA Captree Island Vicinity
USA Chenier Plain
USA Cheyenne Bottoms Preserve and Wildlife Area
USA Deveaux Bank
USA Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge - Holgate Unit
USA Fire Island (East of Lighthouse)
USA Great Salt Marsh
USA Huguenot Park-Nassau Sound
USA Huntington and Northport Bays
USA Isles Dernieres-Timbalier Islands
USA Jamaica Bay
USA Maschaug Pond and Beach
USA Mecox Sagaponack Coastal Dunes
USA Missouri National Recreational River
USA Monomoy and South Beach NWR
USA Moriches Bay
USA Napeague Harbor and Beach
USA Nissequague River Watershed and Smithtown Bay
USA North Platte River Valley
USA Outer Cape Cod (Cape Cod National Seashore)
USA Plymouth and Duxbury Bays
USA Port Bolivar Bird Sanctuaries - Bolivar Flats
USA Sandy Hook/ Gateway National Recreation Area
USA Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore mainland (including Donner Point to Dimmick's Point and Glen Arbor Twp beaches)
USA Trustom Pond/Moonstone Beach
USA Weekapaug - Quonochontaug
USA West Hempstead Bay/Jones Beach West
USA Westby Prairie-Wetland Complex

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Historical
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Charadrius melodus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2017.