Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

Clement, P. 2016. Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Virkkala, R., Heikkinen, R. K., Fronzek, S. and Leikola, N. 2013a. Climate change, northern birds of conservation concern and matching the hotspots of habitat suitability with the reserve network. PLoS One 8(5): e63376.

Virkkala, R., Heikkinen, R. K., Fronzek, S., Kujala, H. and Leikola, N. 2013b. Does the protected area network preserve bird species of conservation concern in a rapidly changing climate? Biodiversity and conservation 22(2): 459-482.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pinicola enucleator. Downloaded from on 08/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 08/12/2023.