Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass 56 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 50,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 53,700,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend decreasing estimated -
Generation length (years) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.4,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: < c.1,000 wintering individuals in China, c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 92,300-214,000 pairs, which equates to 185,000-428,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 5% of the global range.


Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-72.5% decline over 40 years, equating to a -27.6% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria extant vagrant
Belgium extant vagrant
Bermuda (to UK) extant vagrant
Canada extant native
China (mainland) extant native
Czechia extant vagrant
Denmark extant vagrant
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant vagrant
Germany extant vagrant
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Hungary extant vagrant
Japan extant native
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant vagrant
Netherlands extant vagrant
North Korea extant vagrant
Norway extant native yes
Poland extant vagrant
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Serbia extant vagrant
Slovakia extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant vagrant
Ukraine extant vagrant
United Kingdom extant vagrant
USA extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Sweden Sjaunja
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Verkhnevisherski mountain
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shapshal ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Tundyt mountain
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Japan Mount Taisetsu
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pinicola enucleator. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023.