LC
Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 56.40000153 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 52,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 53,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.4,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: < c.1,000 wintering individuals in China, c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 92,300-214,000 pairs, which equates to 185,000-428,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 5% of the global range.

.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-72.5% decline over 40 years, equating to a -27.6% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Canada N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary V Extant
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Netherlands V Extant
North Korea V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Ukraine V Extant
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Japan Mount Taisetsu
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Reisa
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Shapshal ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tundyt mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Verkhnevisherski mountain
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Sweden Sjaunja

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pinicola enucleator. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2017.