LC
Pine Bunting Emberiza leucocephalos



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 28.5 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,900,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 19,600,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, though the European population is estimated at 50-120 pairs, which equates to 100-240 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), with Europe forming <5% of the global range. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in China; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia V Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece V Extant
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
North Korea N Extant
Norway V Extant
Pakistan N Extant
Poland V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan V Extant
Turkey V Extant
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine V Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Emberiza leucocephalos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2019.