LC
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 69,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, though in Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 100-200 pairs, which equates to 200-400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), with Europe forming <5% of the global range. National population sizes have been estimated at possibly c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China and < c.100 breeding pairs in Taiwan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is unclear. Numbers have increased with the introduction of fish-stocking and fish-farming in several areas however decreases in populations have been reported from parts of Syria, Israel, Egypt and Zimbabwe. The species has been impacted by the use of poisons to kill fish and Red-billed Queleas (Quelea quelea) (Woodall 2016). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by at least 10% in 13.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
France V Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Greece V Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine V Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Afghanistan Pech and Waygal valleys
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Turkey Küpeli Mountain
Turkey Southern Euphrates Valley and Birecik Plains
Turkey Cizre and Silopi
Turkey Dicle Valley
Turkey Karkamış
Turkey Ceyhan Delta

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ceryle rudis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2020.