EN
Phoenix Petrel Pterodroma alba



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A3bce+4bce A2bce+3bce+4bce; B2ab(i,ii,iv,v)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A3bce+4bce
2016 Endangered A3bce+4bce
2012 Endangered A3bce+4bce
2010 Endangered A3b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2008 Endangered A3b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2007 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 28,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 460 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000 medium estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.6 - - -

Population justification: While population details are often uncertain, it appears this is now a scarce species, perhaps numbering only 10,000 breeding pairs and 30,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Repeated surveys of some locations have shown population declines and local extinctions; predation by feral cats is thought to be a major factor. The recent introduction of House Rats Rattus rattus to a breeding stronghold may result in more rapid declines in the future, suspected to potentially be in the rnage 50-79% over three generations (c. 47 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa U Extant
Cook Islands U Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
Kiribati N Extant Yes
New Zealand U Extinct
Niue (to New Zealand) U Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Samoa U Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga N Extinct Yes
Tuvalu U Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) U Extant
USA U Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Chile Isla Rapa Nui
French Polynesia Fatu Huku
French Polynesia Fatu Huku Marine
French Polynesia Hatuta'a
French Polynesia Hatuta'a Marine
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Ua Pou
French Polynesia Marquesas Marin
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island) Marine
Kiribati Phoenix Islands Marine
Kiribati Rawaki (Phoenix Island)
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Oeno Island
Tonga Hunga Ha'apai, Hunga Tonga Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Anoplolepis gracilipes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oryctolagus cuniculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus exulans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pterodroma alba. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/07/2019.