CR
Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2cd; C2a(ii) A2cd; C2a(i); D A2cd; C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered A2cd; C2a(ii)
2016 Critically Endangered A2cd; C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered A2cd; C2a(ii)
2013 Critically Endangered A2cd;C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered A2cd;C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered A2c,d; C2a(ii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 551,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 180-500 medium estimated 2003
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 90-94 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.5 - - -

Population justification: Bueser et al. (2003) estimated the population on Mindanao to number 82-233 pairs. Numbers elsewhere are tiny: perhaps six pairs on Samar, two on Leyte and probably very few on Luzon, giving a total population size of perhaps 90-250 pairs, or 180-500 mature individuals, roughly equating to 250-750 individuals in total.

Trend justification: An extremely rapid decline is suspected to have taken place over the last three generations, based on rates of habitat loss in the past (given this species's presumably long generation length), which are on-going.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Philippines N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines North Eastern Cagayan Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Peñablanca Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park
Philippines Central Sierra Madre mountains
Philippines Aurora Memorial National Park
Philippines Mount Dingalan
Philippines Mounts Irid-Angilo and Binuang
Philippines Mounts Banahaw-San Cristobal National Park
Philippines Pagbilao and Tayabas Bay
Philippines Mount Cabalantian - Mount Capoto-an complex
Philippines Mount Yacgun - Mount Sohoton complex
Philippines Anonang-Lobi Range
Philippines Mount Nacolod
Philippines Mount Hilong-hilong
Philippines Mount Diwata Range
Philippines Bislig
Philippines Mount Agtuuganon and Mount Pasian
Philippines Mount Kampalili-Puting Bato
Philippines Mount Hamiguitan (Tumadgo peak)
Philippines Mount Balatukan
Philippines Mount Tago Range
Philippines Mount Kitanglad
Philippines Kalatungan mountains
Philippines Munai / Tambo
Philippines Lake Lanao
Philippines Mount Piagayungan
Philippines Butig mountains
Philippines Mount Sinaka
Philippines Mount Apo
Philippines Liguasan marsh
Philippines Mount Daguma
Philippines Mount Matutum
Philippines Mount Busa-Kiamba
Philippines Mount Latian complex
Philippines Mount Dapiak-Mount Paraya
Philippines Mount Sugarloaf
Philippines Mount Timolan
Philippines Lituban-Quipit Watershed
Philippines Pasonanca watershed
Philippines Samar Island Natural Park
Philippines Casecnan Protected Landscape
Philippines Angat watershed
Philippines Mount Piagayungan and Butig Mountains
Philippines Mount Malindang
Philippines Southern Samar mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 150 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Pithecophaga jefferyi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020.