VU
Philippine Duck Anas luzonica



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2bcd
2012 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 887,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3300-6700 medium estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing good suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification: A total of 4,632 individuals were counted in the Asian Waterbird Census in 2004, and 4,428 in 2005 (D. Li in litt. 2005). The total population is likely to fall between 5,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification: A steep population decline was evident by the mid-1970s, with high numbers recorded at only a few sites in the following decade. Subsequent local extinctions and near-disappearances have occurred in several significant sites, owing to exceptionally high levels of hunting and trapping, conversion of natural wetlands, mangrove destruction and the recent extensive use of pesticides on rice-fields. This species's population is suspected to be undergoing a rapid and continuing decline in line with these impacts.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Japan V Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines Candaba swamp
Philippines Bataan Natural Park and Subic Bay Forest Reserve
Philippines Manila Bay
Philippines Mounts Palay-Palay-Mataas Na Gulod National Park
Philippines Buguey wetlands
Philippines Peñablanca Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Aurora Memorial National Park
Philippines Polillo Islands
Philippines Pagbilao and Tayabas Bay
Philippines Lalaguna marsh
Philippines Catanduanes Watershed Forest Reserve
Philippines Bulusan Volcano Natural Park
Philippines Central Marinduque
Philippines Lake Naujan
Philippines Iglit - Baco Mountains
Philippines Mount Siburan
Philippines Mount Hitding
Philippines Mount Mantalingahan
Philippines Mount Guiting-guiting Natural Park
Philippines Central Panay mountains
Philippines Cuernos de Negros
Philippines Olango Island
Philippines Mount Cabalantian - Mount Capoto-an complex
Philippines Mount Yacgun - Mount Sohoton complex
Philippines Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape
Philippines Agusan marsh
Philippines Bislig
Philippines Mount Kitanglad
Philippines Lake Lanao
Philippines Mount Apo
Philippines Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park
Philippines North Eastern Cagayan Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Mount Timolan
Philippines Samar Island Natural Park
Philippines Lake Manguao
Philippines Malasi Lake
Philippines Zambales mountains
Philippines Southern Samar mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Anas luzonica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/10/2020.