CR
Philippine Cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2bcd A2bcd A2bcd; D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Critically Endangered A2bcd
2016 Critically Endangered A2bcd
2015 Critically Endangered A2bcd
2013 Critically Endangered A2bcd
2012 Critically Endangered A2bcd
2009 Critically Endangered A2b,c,d
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass 288 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 734,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 600 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 300 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 430-750 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 5 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 650-1,120 individuals, roughly equivalent to 430-750 mature individuals (P. Widmann in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: This long-lived species has declined extremely rapidly owing to extensive deforestation within its range, but also as a result of the high prices the birds fetch in trade (c. US$300 in Manila). This resulted in near-total harvest of nestlings and consequently recruitment was extremely low. However, the current population trend may in fact be far more favourable, since many populations in the oceanic Philippines are extinct and some protected populations are increasing (P. Widmann in litt. 2012, 2016). In five PCCP (Philippine Cockatoo Conservation Program) project sites, it has recovered considerably, but declines elsewhere continue, notably in Polillo, and it is feared nearing extinction in Rizal. Interviews with trappers and farmers indicate that Philippine Cockatoos were considerably more common at least until the early 1980s in Palawan, Mindoro, Polillo, Mabate, Samar, Bohol, and Siargao, indicating that the dramatic decline occurred later in this decade (P. Widmann in litt. 2013). Therefore although they have now slowed or even stopped, declines are suspected to have been >80% in the past three generations (39 years), and as such the current trend is tentatively retained as declining.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Philippines N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines Bataan Natural Park and Subic Bay Forest Reserve
Philippines Mariveles mountains
Philippines Polillo Islands
Philippines Mount Makiling
Philippines Mounts Banahaw-San Cristobal National Park
Philippines Mount Isarog National Park
Philippines Catanduanes Watershed Forest Reserve
Philippines Bacon-Manito
Philippines Central Marinduque
Philippines Puerto Galera
Philippines Mount Halcon
Philippines Lake Naujan
Philippines Culion Island
Philippines San Vicente - Taytay - Roxas forests
Philippines Puerto Princesa Subterranean River Natural Park / Cleopatra's Needle
Philippines Victoria and Anepahan Ranges
Philippines Mount Mantalingahan
Philippines Balabac Island
Philippines Balogo Watershed
Philippines Mount Kanla-on Natural Park
Philippines Cuernos de Negros
Philippines Mount Bandila-an
Philippines Central Cebu (including Tabunan)
Philippines Mount Cabalantian - Mount Capoto-an complex
Philippines Mount Yacgun - Mount Sohoton complex
Philippines Anonang-Lobi Range
Philippines Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape
Philippines Mount Kambinlio and Mount Redondo
Philippines Siargao island
Philippines Mount Hilong-hilong
Philippines Mount Kampalili-Puting Bato
Philippines Mount Hamiguitan (Tumadgo peak)
Philippines Lake Lanao
Philippines Mount Apo
Philippines Mount Timolan
Philippines Pasonanca watershed
Philippines Basilan Natural Biotic Area
Philippines Mount Dajo National Park
Philippines Tawi-tawi Island
Philippines Simunul and Manuk Manka Islands
Philippines Sibutu and Tumindao Islands
Philippines Rasa Island Wildlife Sanctuary
Philippines Mount Hinunduang
Philippines Iglit - Baco Mountains
Philippines Malpalon
Philippines Malampaya Sound Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Bulusan Volcano Natural Park
Philippines Samar Island Natural Park
Philippines Calauit Island
Philippines San Vicente - Roxas Forests
Philippines Dumaran - Araceli
Philippines Mount Siburan
Philippines Busuanga Island
Philippines Coron Island
Philippines Southern Samar mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Altitude 0 - 150 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Cacatua haematuropygia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020.