Pharaoh Eagle-owl Bubo ascalaphus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,700,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.6 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is reported to be not uncommon in most of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1999).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Algeria Béni Abbès
Algeria Parc National du Tassili N'Ajjer
Algeria Parc National de l'Ahaggar
Egypt Gebel Elba
Egypt The Abraq area
Egypt St Katherine Protectorate
Egypt Gebel Maghara
Egypt Quseima
Egypt Wadi Gerafi
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Libya Jabal al Akhdar
Morocco Parc Naturel de Talassemtane
Morocco Région Fouchal - Matarka
Morocco Jbel Krouz
Morocco Piste de Tagdilt
Morocco Merzouga/Tamezguidat
Morocco Tamri and Imsouane
Morocco Oued Mird
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Msseyed
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Morocco Dakhla area
Mali Aguelhok
Mali Ag Oua - Ag Arbech
Mauritania Tamreïkat
Mauritania Chegga
Mauritania El Mréiti
Mauritania Kediet ej Jill
Mauritania El Ghallâouîya
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mauritania Ibi (Graret el Frass)
Mauritania Arâguîb el Jahfa
Mauritania Wagchogda
Mauritania Tinigart
Mauritania Wad Initi
Niger Dilia de Lagané
Niger NNR Aïr - Ténéré
Sudan Wadi Halfa
Chad Fada Archei
Chad Ouadi Rimé - Ouadi Achim
Tunisia Bouhedma
Tunisia Steppe de Gafsa
Tunisia Sebkhet Ennoual
Tunisia Sebkhet Nouaïel
Tunisia Douz Laâla
Tunisia Snam
Tunisia Ghidma
United Arab Emirates Masafi - Tayibah area
Jordan Dana
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Kuwait Al-Batin Park
Saudi Arabia Hawtat Bani Tamim
United Arab Emirates Al Marmoom Desert
United Arab Emirates Dubai Desert
United Arab Emirates Qarn Nazwa
Yemen Hawf deciduous cloud forest
Niger Termit Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Desert Hot suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Freshwater Springs and Oases suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Bubo ascalaphus. Downloaded from on 28/01/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/01/2023.