Peruvian Pigeon Patagioenas oenops


Justification of Red List Category
This species has been recorded at few locations within a small range. Habitat loss and degradation are presumably causing declines in both range and its small population. The species therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A slow and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat loss and degradation.

Distribution and population

Patagioenas oenops occupies a restricted range in north Peru, principally in the upper Marañón valley (Cajamarca and Amazonas), and regularly at one site in La Libertad (Clements and Shany 2001, Schulenberg et al. 2007), with one record from Piura. There are also recent sight records in extreme south-east Ecuador (P. Coopmans per R. S. Ridgely in litt. 1994, Ridgely et al. 1998). It is generally relatively uncommon, but scarce in heavily populated areas in the north of its range, and relatively common in a comparatively inaccessible area near Balsas (upper río Marañón) in 1975 and 1999, and on the río Comboca, in the south Cordillera de Colán in 1994 (Wege and Long 1995, Davies et al. 1997, Begazo et al. 2001). Recent surveys of the Cordillera de Colán, Amazonas, suggest it is tolerant of some forest degradation (Clements and Shany 2001), but this threat must be causing a population decline.


It inhabits riparian woodland, dominated by the willow Salix humbertiana, and adjacent dry forest on steep valley slopes, mainly at 850-2,400 m. It has also been recorded in degraded, humid premontane forest (Davies et al. 1997) and around mango orchards (R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt 1998). It appears to make limited seasonal elevational movements. Its ecology is very poorly known, with virtually no data on feeding, although it has been seen eating ripe coca seeds (Baptista et al. 1997), and singles and pairs have been recorded in fruiting trees (including Cordia lutea) (Davies et al. 1997, Begazo 2001). The only breeding data refers to a juvenile collected in April.


It probably suffers some hunting pressure. The gradual degradation and loss of its already naturally restricted habitat are presumably causing a population decline, although surveys of the Cordillera de Colán, Amazonas suggest it is tolerant of some forest degradation (Clements and Shany 2001). Its relative abundance within inaccessible areas, and scarcity in heavily populated regions suggests that these threats have already resulted in significant decreases.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
There are no protected areas within this species's range.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to establish the precise limits of its range, population levels and trends, and conservation requirements (Baptista et al. 1997). Research its ecology. Designate protected areas within the upper río Marañón valley, e.g. in the Cordillera de Colán (Wege and Long 1995, Davies et al. 1997).


31-34 cm. Medium-sized, grey-and-rufous pigeon. Grey-brown head. Purplish-brown underparts, paler on throat. Grey lower belly and vent. Upperparts, inner wing-coverts and scapulars chestnut tinged purplish. Rest of wing grey, dusky remiges. Grey rump, darker uppertail-coverts. Blackish tail. Bluish-grey bill with red base. Similar spp. Pale-vented Pigeon C. cayennensis is drabber, with less rufous on wing and grey tail. Voice Not reported. Hints In small groups, best located in favoured fruiting trees.


Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Ridgely, R., Webster, R., Rowlett, R.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Patagioenas oenops. Downloaded from on 24/06/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/06/2021.