NT
Peruvian Pigeon Patagioenas oenops



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 27,000 km2 medium
Area of Occupancy (breeding/resident) 6,970 km2
Number of locations 10-100 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals poor suspected 2018
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2016-2030
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-19% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-19% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-19% - - -
Generation length 4.6 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 100% - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been quantified. The species is generally relatively uncommon; it is scarce in heavily populated areas in the north of its range, but relatively common in more inaccessible parts of its range (Wege and Long 1995, Davies et al. 1997, Begazo et al. 2001, Baptista et al. 2020). It is tentatively suspected that the population size is between 2,500 and 9,999 mature individuals (see SERFOR 2018).
Even though the population structure has not been formally assessed, observational records (per eBird 2021) suggest that all individuals are part of the same subpopulation.

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a decline caused by the impacts of habitat loss and degradation and presumably by hunting and trapping pressure. Over three generations (13.8 years; Bird et al. 2020), about 6% of tree cover is lost within the range (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). While surveys of the Cordillera de Colán, Amazonas, suggest that the species is tolerant of some forest degradation (Clements and Shany 2001), it is likely suffering additional pressures from hunting and low levels of trapping for the bird trade (Baptista et al. 2020, S. Bruslund in litt. 2022). The rate of population decline is therefore likely exceeding the rate of forest loss and is here tentatively placed in the band 1-19% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Ecuador extant native yes
Peru extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Zumba-Chito
Peru San Jose de Lourdes
Peru El Molino
Peru Río Marañón
Peru Chinchipe
Peru Bagua

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 850 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Patagioenas oenops. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/peruvian-pigeon-patagioenas-oenops on 01/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 01/03/2024.