Peruvian Booby Sula variegata


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,420,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.6 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 1,200,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be fluctuating owing to fluctuations in climatic conditions and, consequently, in the abundance of prey populations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Chile N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Peru Isla Lobos de Afuera
Peru Isla Pachacámac
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas
Peru Río Tambo y Lagunas de Mejía
Peru Laguna de Ite
Peru Isla Foca
Chile Corriente de Humboldt Arica
Chile Acantilados de Arica
Chile Isla Grande de Atacama
Chile Isla Chañaral
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros
Chile Islotes Pajaros
Chile Maitencillo
Chile Islotes de Horcón
Chile Isla Santa María
Chile Isla Mocha
Chile Parque Tumbes Talcahuano
Chile Acantilados y Farellones Costeros
Chile Arica Pelágica
Chile Guaneras de Cutipa
Chile Muelle Casa del Soldado
Chile Acantilados de la Quirilluca
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Península de Hualpén
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Rocas de Constitución
Chile Costa de Quintero y Mar Adyacente (Pelagico)
Peru Humedales de Chimbote / Isla Lobos de Afuera / Isla Lobos de Tierra - Marine
Peru Río Tambo y Lagunas de Mejía - Marine
Peru Isla Pachacamac - Marine
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas - Marine
Chile Puerto Viejo - Marine
Peru Peruvian Colonies 1 - Marine
Peru Peruvian Colonies 2 - Marine
Peru Peruvian Colonies 3 - Marine
Peru Peruvian Colonies 4 - Marine
Peru Peruvian Colonies 5 - Marine
Peru Peruvian Colonies 6 - Marine
Peru Peruvian Colonies 7 - Marine
Peru Peruvian Colonies 8 - Marine
Peru Guanape Islands
Peru Isla Mazorca
Peru Isla Lobos de Tierra
Chile Punta Lengua de Vaca
Chile Humedal El Yali
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Cachagua
Chile Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar
Chile Desembocadura del Río Bío-Bío
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño de Algarrobo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major resident
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Sula variegata. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022.