Perija Starfrontlet Coeligena consita


Justification of Red List Category

This newly-split and poorly-known species has a very small range and is presumed to have a small population, restricted to a number of very small subpopulations, which are inferred to be declining as a variety of threats including narcotics cultivation, uncontrolled colonisation, cattle-ranching and mineral exploitation cause the loss and fragmentation of its high altitude habitat. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable, but further information on population size, subpopulation structure, population trends and threats could lead to a further reclassification.

Population justification
No population data are available for this species, but found to be fairly common at one Colombian locality (López-O et al. 2014).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be declining owing to habitat loss caused by illegal roads and settlements, mineral exploitation, cultivation of narcotics and coffee, cattle-ranching and colonisation.

Distribution and population

Coeligena consita is endemic to the Sierra de Perijá, along the border of Colombia and Venezuela. A number of records and specimens from Colombia since 2008 (López-O et al. 2014), where previously known from one 1942 specimen (del Hoyo et al. 2014); unknown in life in Venezuela, where specimens date from 1952 (del Hoyo et al. 2014).


The pre-split C. bonapartei (incorporating C. eos and C. consita) was listed as occurring in cloud forest and dwarf forest, and open terrain with scattered vegetation at 1,400-3,200 m (del Hoyo et al. 1999, Hilty 2003). However, specimens and observations of C. consita cover the narrow altitudinal range 2,550-3,025 m (del Hoyo et al. 2014).


Habitat on the lower slopes of the Sierra de Perijá is severely threatened by narcotics cultivation, uncontrolled colonisation, cattle-ranching and mineral exploitation, which are all facilitated by the many roads approaching the sierra from the Colombian side (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1997, 2000, A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998, R. Strewe in litt. 2003, Sharpe and Lentino 2008). Higher-elevation habitat was thought to be less affected by these developments, but even this is now believed to be fragmented and declining as a result of illegal cultivation (Renjifo et al. 2002, C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2003). Forest is still being lost to burning and poppy cultivation. Security problems make access very difficult (R. Strewe in litt. 2003).

Conservation actions

Conservation and research actions underway
Some or all of the range is formally protected by Sierra de Perijá National Park, Venezuela, but there is no active management (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998).

Conservation and research actions proposed

Estimate the population size. Study its ecological requirements, and assess habitat availability. Manage and effectively protect Sierra de Perijá National Park.


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Sharpe, C J

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Coeligena consita. Downloaded from on 24/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/08/2019.