Pearly Parakeet Pyrrhura lepida


Justification of Red List Category

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, although it shows some tolerance of degraded landscapes, it is nevertheless suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Population justification
The population is preliminarily estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 6,700 mature individuals. This requires confirmation.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 47-64.5% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). However, given the species appears to have some degree of tolerance to habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt. 2011), it is suspected to decline by 30-49% over three generations.

Distribution and population

Pyrrhura lepida occurs in north-east Brazil south of the Amazon (Juniper and Parr 1998). There are three recognised subspecies: the nominate in Belém and near the rio Capim, Pará, east to São Luís, Maranhão; coerulescens in north Maranhão east of Rosário; and anerythra in the catchment of the upper rio Xingú and its tributaries, from the rio Pracuí and the left bank of the rio Tocantins (Juniper and Parr 1998). It is generally uncommon and declining.


It occurs in lowland terra firme humid forest, being reported from forest edge, clearings and second growth (Parker et al. 1996, Juniper and Parr 1998).


Despite an apparent tolerance of some habitat degradation, it is perhaps close to extinction in coastal areas of north Maranhão, owing to large-scale deforestation (Juniper and Parr 1998). It occurs within protected areas, but their integrity is compromised by illegal logging (Juniper and Parr 1998). Deforestation in the Amazon basin is expected to increase as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The species is listed as Vulnerable at the national level in Brazil (MMA 2014), with lepida and coerulescens considered Endangered (Silveira and Straube 2008).

Conservation Actions Proposed
*Census and monitor populations to assess the global population and demographic trends and to refine the distribution and locate strongholds. *Investigate its ecology, threats and conservation requirements. Strengthen the network of protected areas within remaining core habitat. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.


Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pyrrhura lepida. Downloaded from on 23/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/10/2019.