VU
Partridge Pigeon Geophaps smithii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bce+3ce+4ce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2bce+3ce+4ce
2012 Vulnerable A2ce+3ce+4ce
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,e; C2a(i)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - Australia
Average mass 194 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 233,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 513,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 126000 poor estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -

Population justification:

The population of G. s. smithi was estimated at c120,000 mature individuals in 2010, based on an AOO of 6,000 km2 and a density of 0.2 birds/ha, while G. s. blaauwi was estimated at 6,000 mature individuals in 2010 based on 0.1 birds/ha in occupied habitat (Garnett et al. 2011), giving a total population estimate of 126,000 mature individuals (Garnett et al. 2011). These may well be marked over-estimates. Woinarski et al. (2012) calculated a mean abundance of 0.05 (based on tallies of no. of birds seen in 8 visits to a 1 ha quadrat, so effectively a density of 0.006 birds/ha) across 136 sampled plots in Kakadu NP, a stronghold for this species. Woinarski et al. (2012) also reported a statistically significant 79% decline in abundance across these monitoring plots from the period 2001-04 to 2007-09, although the species was reported originally in relatively few plots, so the decline estimate is not very robust.

Trend justification:

Popula­tions in Kakadu have declined substantially over the last decade based on a decline in relative abundance from 0.24 in 2001-2004 to 0.05 in 2007-2009 (Woinarski 2009, in Garnett et al. 2011), while the population on the Tiwi Islands may have declined as a result of clearance for forestry. G. s. blaauwi is now extremely scarce in the eastern half of its former range. At Kalumburu, where it was historically very numerous, only 1 pair was found in searches during 1999 (Garnett and Crowley 2000), and it was reported to have declined dramatically in the Mitchell Plateau region (Department of Sustaina­bility, Environment, Water, Population and Communi­ties 2011). The overall population is suspected to be undergoing a rapid decline over three generations (17 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Tiwi Islands
Australia Gregory National Park
Australia Kakadu Savanna
Australia Prince Regent and Mitchell River

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Andropogon gayanus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Geophaps smithii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/10/2021.