LC
Partridge Pigeon Geophaps smithii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Least Concern
2016 Vulnerable A2bce+3ce+4ce
2012 Vulnerable A2ce+3ce+4ce
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,e; C2a(i)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - Australia
Average mass 194 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 375,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 81800-145400, 116500 poor estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 5-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 5-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 3-4 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.7 - - -

Population justification:

Applying known density estimates and broad estimations of the area of occupancy, the population of G. s. smithii was estimated at 108,000 [81,000-136,000] (Davies et al. 2021) while G. s. blaauwi was estimated at 8,500 [800-9,400] (Swann et al. 2021), giving a total population estimate of 116,500 mature individuals for the species. 

Trend justification:

In plots across Kakadu, which covers approximately half the range of G. s. smithii, the average density fell from c.3.0 birds/km2 in 2001–2004 to 0.63 birds/km2 in 2007–2009 (Woinarski et al. 2012). Losses are also likely to have occurred on the fringes of Darwin as development has intensified. However, the mainland range has been stable and given the isolation, size and stability of the Tiwi Islands population, overall declines of G. s. smithii are considered unlikely to have met or approached 30% in the last three generations (Davies et al. 2021).
Data on the trend of G. s. blaauwi are principally anecdotal, with flock sizes at known locations appearing to get smaller. Around Kimbolton for example, where the population appears to be stable but localised within a broader survey area, maximum flock size each year from 2017–2020 was 33, 10, 16 and 18, respectively (M. Bruton/AWC unpublished, in Swann et al. 2021). However, a decline approaching 30% in three generations is unlikely and the subpopulation comprises approximately only 7% of the total number of mature individuals and is therefore unlikely to substantially affect the global trend.
Overall, the trend of the global population is therefore inferred to be declining, suspected here at a broadly continuing rate of 5-19% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Tiwi Islands
Australia Gregory National Park
Australia Kakadu Savanna
Australia Prince Regent and Mitchell River

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 10 - 250 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Andropogon gayanus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Bos taurus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Geophaps smithii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022.