NT
Papyrus Gonolek Laniarius mufumbiri



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2013 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2012 Near Threatened B1ab(iii)
2008 Near Threatened B1a+b(iii)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 272,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2000000 medium estimated 2001
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -

Population justification: A recent estimate put the total population at c.2 million adults (Maclean 2004, Maclean et al. 2013), roughly equivalent to 3 million individuals in total.

Trend justification: Maclean et al. (2013) estimate that, between 1984–1987 and 1999–2001 the areal extent of papyrus in its range declined by 6.7% from 1,643 to 1,532 km2. This species is estimated to have decreased by 20.6% (80% CI: 7.7-42.5%) over three generations, based on a comparison of data from 1984-1987 and 1999-2001. Rates of population decline were estimated by assuming that relationships between density, occurrence and habitat variables derived from 1999–2001 data, were the same in 1984–1987, and assumed a constant geometric annual rate of decline. The population is therefore estimated to be in moderately rapid decline based on estimated losses of papyrus swamp habitat and decreases in local population density (Maclean et al. 2013).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Burundi N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Burundi Ruvubu National Park
Burundi Rwihinda Lake Managed Nature Reserve
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Virunga National Park
Kenya Dunga swamp
Kenya Koguta swamp
Kenya Kusa swamp
Kenya Sio Port swamp
Kenya Yala swamp complex
Rwanda Akagera National Park
Rwanda Akanyaru wetlands
Rwanda Nyabarongo wetlands
Rwanda Rugezi Marsh
Tanzania Kagera swamps
Tanzania Minziro Forest Reserve
Uganda Ajai Wildlife Reserve
Uganda Doho Rice Scheme
Uganda Kibale National Park
Uganda Kibimba Rice Scheme
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve
Uganda Lake Bisina
Uganda Lake Mburo National Park
Uganda Lake Nakuwa
Uganda Lake Opeta
Uganda Lutembe Bay
Uganda Mabamba Bay
Uganda Mabira Forest Reserve
Uganda Mount Elgon National Park
Uganda Murchison Falls National Park
Uganda Nabajjuzi Wetland
Uganda Nabugabo wetland
Uganda Nyamuriro swamp
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Uganda Sango Bay area
Uganda Semliki National Park
Uganda Semliki reserves

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Altitude 1100 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Laniarius mufumbiri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017.