Papuan Eagle Harpyopsis novaeguineae


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 1,200,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 3200-4000 mature individuals medium estimated 2016
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 2000-2030
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Generation length 9.94 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 100% - - -

Population justification: Based on a territory mapping exercise in the extensive Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area (comprising, at the time, of c.85% montane forest and c.15% cultivation), Watson and Asoyama (2001) estimated a suitable density of one pair (= two mature individuals) per 150 km2 of forest (accounting both for density and occupancy). Bryan et al. (2015) suggested an area of suitable rainforest habitat of c.250,000 km2 exists on New Guinea, suggesting a total population size of 1,600 pairs. However, since the Crate Wildlife Management Area contains habitat not suitable, and the species has also been recorded (albeit at low densities) in monsoon forest, the population is perhaps higher. Consequently, the population size of this species is estimated at 1,600-2,000 pairs, or 3,200-4,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Based on data between 2000 and 2021 (Global Forest Watch 2022, based on methods and data from Hansen et al. [2013]), forest cover is estimated to have been reduced in this species' range by c.7-9% in the three generation period (c.30 years; Bird et al. 2020) to 2021. Given this species' forest dependence, this is thought to have caused a reduction in population size at least equal. Hunting remains a key threat to this species in areas close to villages (Watson and Asoyama 2001) and this is thought to have additive impacts, such that the population is suspected of declining at an ongoing rate of 10-19% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Indonesia extant native yes
Papua New Guinea extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3700 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Harpyopsis novaeguineae. Downloaded from on 03/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/12/2023.