Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2018 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2017 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2016 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2013 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2012 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 57,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 18000-30000 medium estimated 2003
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-20 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-20 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.68 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 9,000-15,000 pairs (Galushin et al. 2003), equating to 18,000-30,000 mature individuals. The European population is estimated at 1,000-2,200 breeding pairs, which roughly equates to 2,000-4,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.).

Trend justification: Assessment of population trends in this species is complicated by the fact that on breeding territories numbers fluctuate in response to environmental conditions, probably to changing numbers of small mammals. Thus, high or low territory numbers in any given year or two-year period may be indicative of change in demographics, or they may be indicative of change in local environment, while the birds may breed elsewhere without their population size changing. A 13-year data study in north-central Kazakhstan revealed that its numbers and reproductive success vary cyclically, peaking every c. 6 years, in response to interannual variation in local vole densities; these cycles were asynchronous between regions, suggesting a regional redistribution of birds between years (Terraube et al. 2012a). Large numbers of Pallid Harriers in Finland have also been associated with peaks in vole populations (Henry 2018).

A large decline occurred in Europe during 1970-1990 (Tucker and Heath 1994), when up to 30% of birds were lost (particularly from the key population in European Russia), and the species continued to decline in 1990-2000, when overall trends exceeded 30% over three generations (17 years) (BirdLife International 2004). More recently, the European population trend was assessed as stable in the 2021 European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International in prep.), partly due to an increasing breeding population in Northern Europe (Keller et al. 2020). Europe comprises about 40% of the species’ global breeding range, but holds a much smaller proportion of the global population, as the larger proportion is concentrated in Central Asia, especially in southern Russia and Kazakhstan (Galushin et al. 2003). When last assessed, surveys in the Kustanay Oblast region (northern Kazakhstan) from 1997 to 2004 indicated a fluctuating but ostensibly stable population of 1,500–2,000 pairs, nesting at a density of 9.4–25 pairs per 100 km(Bragin 1999, E. Bragin in litt. 2005). Anecdotal evidence from southern Kazakhstan (Almaty to Chockpack Bird Station) suggested that it was locally abundant (A. Corso in litt. 2005). A survey of harrier roost sites in India from 1985-2015 found a declining trend in the number of overwintering Pallid Harriers, although the trend was not statistically significant (Ganesh & Prashanth 2018). However, roost counts in southern India during 2015-2019 found a significant decline in male Pallid Harriers (Saravanan et al. 2021). 

The partly nomadic nature of the species and its fluctuating numbers make an assessment of the overall trend problematic. With the population estimated to be stable in Europe, but a potentially significant decline reported from overwintering sites in India, a moderately rapid decline of 10-20% continues to be suspected on a precautionary basis until better data are available from its core breeding range in Central Asia.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bhutan V Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Malaysia V Extant
Maldives N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Possibly Extinct Yes
Vietnam V Extinct
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Cyprus Akhna dam
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Kythira island
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Finland Värtsilä valley
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Siniye mountains
Russia (European) Kupy area
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland
Russia (European) Watershed of Bityug and Tsna rivers
Russia (European) Zavoronezhski area
Russia (European) Shalkaro-Zhetykol'ski lake system
Russia (European) Insaro-Kovylkinski
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Alatyr' river in vicinity of Ardatov
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Maly Nakas ridge
Russia (European) Irendyk ridge
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski
Russia (European) Algaiski
Russia (European) Rovno area
Russia (European) Zhestyanka
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve)
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
France Montagne de la Clape
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Cape Otranto and Cape Santa Maria di Leuca coast
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Mount Conero
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Cameroon Kalamaloué National Park
Cameroon Logone flood-plain
Cameroon Waza National Park
Cameroon Lake Maga
Cameroon Mont Manengouba
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Algeria Parc National de l'Ahaggar
Egypt Lake Bardawil
Egypt Zaranik Protected Area
Egypt Lake Manzala
Egypt Gebel Maghara
Egypt Suez
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt El Qa plain
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Ethiopia Dessa'a forest
Ethiopia Simien Mountains National Park
Ethiopia Fogera plains
Ethiopia Bahir Dar - Lake Tana
Ethiopia Sululta plain
Ethiopia Awash National Park
Ethiopia Dilu Meda (Tefki)
Ethiopia Chelekleka lake and swamp
Ethiopia Koka dam and Lake Gelila
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Ethiopia Boyo wetland
Ethiopia Senkele Sanctuary
Ethiopia Bale Mountains National Park
Ethiopia Nechisar National Park and surroundings
Kenya Kinangop grasslands
Malawi Lake Chilwa and flood-plain
Namibia Etosha National Park
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system
Niger 'W' National Park
Rwanda Akagera National Park
Sudan En Nahud
Tanzania Mount Kilimanjaro
Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Uganda Murchison Falls National Park
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Kafue National Park
Zambia Lukanga Swamp
Zambia Nyika National Park (Zambia)
Zimbabwe Nyanga mountains
Syria Euphrates valley
Ethiopia Yangudi-Rassa National Park
Botswana South-east Botswana
Uganda Kidepo Valley National Park
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Kasanka National Park
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Sulakskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Watershead of Atsvezh and Yuma rivers
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Georgia Alazani Valley
Georgia Kvernaki Ridge
Georgia Lower Kura Valley
Russia (Central Asian) Bog Mamynkul and lake Alakul
Russia (Central Asian) Ebeity lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Siverga lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Interfluve of the rivers Small and Big Karatanka
Russia (Central Asian) Arkaim
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye lake near Novotroitskoye village
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tavolzhan
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Alabota
Russia (Central Asian) Bitter-salty lakes in the West of steppe Kurumbelskoj
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shiye and Maliye Donki lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Forest-steppe Kabyrdakskaja
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kasmalinskaya and Barnaulskaya forest bands
Russia (Central Asian) Vaganovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Turina mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
Armenia Tashir
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Redut' pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye lake near Karas'ye village
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river near Lebedevka and Bugrovoye villages
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Topol'noye lake
Russia (European) Semilovskoye forestry
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river between mouths of the Uya and Ubagan rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Bottomland of Tobol river near villages Lebedevka and Bygrovoe
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Assadabad plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Oman Al Batinah coast
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Jordan Shaumari
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Uzbekistan Angren Plateau
Kazakhstan Cherdoyak
Kazakhstan Aktubek
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Turkmenistan Depmechay
Turkmenistan Akjagaya
Zambia Lower Zambezi National Park
Iraq Abu Dalaf and Shari lake
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Kazakhstan Korgankol Lake
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Jordan Dana
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Alekseevskie steppe pine forests
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Telikol Lakes
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Uzbekistan South-west Gizzar Foothills
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Lower Damour River
Lebanon Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve
Lebanon Southern El Kabir River
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Russia (Central Asian) Charyshskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Krasnoschekovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Loktevskaya
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Turkey Tuz Lake
Niger Diffa-Kinzindi grassland and wetlands
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Pis'myanskiye Gori area
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Kholmanskiye feathergrass steppes
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Beştepe - Mahmudia
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Denis Tepe
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Hel Peninsula
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Mai Valley forests
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Uil River and Taysoygan Sands
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Cape Greco
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Armenia Amasia
South Sudan Kidepo
Jordan Burqu'
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Syria Ras al-Ayn
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Niger Termit Mountains
Kenya Lolldaiga-Mugogodo-Ewaso N'yiro
Kenya Nairobi National Park
Georgia Batumi
Kenya Mutitu Forest
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Central Zagori and mount Mitsikeli
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lavreotiki peninsula and Patroklos islet
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Northern Chios
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Geropotamos estuary, Crete
Russia (European) Teberdinski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Tanzania Masai Steppe
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Repetek
Turkmenistan Uzboy
Turkmenistan Mergen
India Simbalbara National Park
India Velavadar National Park
Mozambique Magude - Muomba

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Circus macrourus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2022.