LC
Pallas's Gull Larus ichthyaetus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,450,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 25,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 125,000-1,100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 25,100-28,300 pairs, which equates to 50,100-56,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus V Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bulgaria V Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti U Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Greece V Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy V Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos V Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes Yes
Maldives V Extant
Malta V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia V Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extinct Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Bangong Co
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Changtang plateau
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Ras al Hadd
Russia (Central Asian) Chanovskaya lake system
Russia (Central Asian) Elbanskye islands (Obsky reservoir)
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Ivan-Karaul island
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Uzbekistan Khorezm Fish Farm and adjacent lakes
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Larus ichthyaetus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017.