EN
Pallas's Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) C2a(i,ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered C2a(ii)
2017 Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,740,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,700,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.2 - - -

Population justification: The previous estimate of 2,500-9,999 mature individuals made in the year 2000 is likely to have been an overestimate. The actual number of mature individuals is likely to be fewer than 2,500, and may be considerably lower than this given the high visibility and accessibility of much of what is now known to be the breeding range. Here the global population is placed in the band 1,000–2,499 mature individuals, and considered to comprise a single migratory population, rather than multiple isolated subpopulations.

Trend justification: A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of loss, degradation and disturbance of wetland habitats and adjacent nesting trees throughout its range.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Cambodia V Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Possibly Extinct Yes
Iraq V Extant Yes
Israel V Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) V Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand V Possibly Extinct
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine V Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Bangladesh Hail Haor
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries)
Bangladesh Pablakhali Wildlife Sanctuary
Bhutan Jigme Dorji National Park
Bhutan Royal Manas National Park
Bhutan Ada lake / Puna Tsangchu
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Bogda (Tian Chi)
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Kunes forest
China (mainland) Oasis and Desert in Hami
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xayar forest and wetland
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
China (mainland) Ulugqat grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis
China (mainland) Hotan Oasis
China (mainland) Ayark Kol and alpine grassland
China (mainland) Aqqik Kol and alpine grassland
China (mainland) Madoi
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changtang plateau
China (mainland) Liupan Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Eastern Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Loess Plateau in western Gansu
China (mainland) Heshui
China (mainland) Huang He Shouqu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Baishui Jiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Têwo Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zoigê (Ruo'ergai) Marshes
China (mainland) Babso Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Simian Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor)
China (mainland) Xiaruyue Reservoir
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Achit Lake
Mongolia Uureg Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Jargalant Khairkhan Mountain
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Santmargatsyn Bayan Lake
Mongolia Khomiin Tal
Mongolia Taatsiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Buir Lake
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Saudi Arabia Dawmat al-Jandl wetland
Pakistan Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Deosai National Park
Pakistan Handrop Shandoor National Park
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Jubo Ramsar Site
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Rangla wetland complex
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Kirthar National Park (including Hub Dam)
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) Ol'khon area
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary
India Magu Thingbu
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary
India Chakrashila Complex
India Chandubi Lake and adjoining areas
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
India Jamjing and Sengajan
India Jengdia Beel and Satgaon
India Kaziranga National Park
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries
India Majuli
India Nameri National Park
India Orang National Park
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary
India Subansiri
India Tamaranga - Dalani - Bhairab Complex
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands
India Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Udhuwa Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Hokarsar
India Wular Lake and associated marshes
India Sanjay Gandhi National Park
India Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhoj wetland
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Jaisamand Lake and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary
India Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary - Tsomgo - Tamze - Chola Complex
India Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary - Zuluk - Bedang Tso - Natula Complex
India Dudhwa National Park
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage
India Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Agra/Etawah)
India Samaspur Bird Sanctuary
India Asan Barrage
India Corbett Tiger Reserve
India Rajaji National Park
India Gorumara National Park
India Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kulik (Raiganj) Bird Sanctuary
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park)
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes)
India Haigam Rakh (marshes)
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota)
India Khangchendzonga National Park and Biosphere Reserve
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Mongolia Taigam Lake
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Sharga Lake
Oman Khawr Rouri
Oman Salalah Bird Sanctuary
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Turkmenistan Nargyz
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr
Turkmenistan Depmechay
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Kazakhstan Telikol Lakes
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
China (mainland) Changshagongma Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kasha Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xiaohegou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Valley of Barguzin
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pakhui or Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary
India Botha Beel
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh
India Buxa Tiger Reserve (National Park)
Afghanistan Small Pamir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Uzboy
India Maguri and Motapung Beels
India Jor Beer
India Amangarh Reserve Forest
India Nandhour Wildlife Sanctuary
India Keibul Lamjao National Park
India Heerakund Reservoir and Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary
India Loktak Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 5000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5200 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Eichhornia crassipes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus leucoryphus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020.