Palila Loxioides bailleui


Banko, P. C. and Farmer, C. 2014. Palila restoration research, 1996-2012. Hawai‘i Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report HCSU-046. University of Hawai‘i at Hilo. Available at:].

Banko, P. C., Camp, R. J., Farmer, C., Brinck, K. W., Leonard, D. L., Stephens, R. M. 2013. Response of palila and other subalpine Hawaiian forest bird species to prolonged drought and habitat degradation by feral ungulate. Biol. Conserv. 157: 70-77.

Banko, P. C., Farmer, C., Brinck, K. W., Johnson, L. 2014a. Translocating Wild Palila. In: Banko, P. C., Farmer, C. (ed.), Hawai‘i Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report HCSU-046. University of Hawai‘i at Hilo. Available at: [].

Banko, P. C.; Brinck, K. W.; Farmer, C.; Hess, S. C. 2009. Palila. In: Pratt, T. K.; Atkinston, C. T.; Banko, P. C.; Jacobi, J. D.; Woodworth, B. L. (ed.), Conservation biology of Hawaiian forest birds: implications for island avifauna, pp. 513-529. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Banko, P. C.; Hess, S. C.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S. J. 1998. Palila population estimate for 1997. 'Elepaio 58: 11-15.

Banko, P. C.; Oboyski, P. T.; Slotterback, J. W.; Dougill, S. J.; Goltz, D. M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M. E.; Murray, T. C. 2002. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation. Journal of Biogeography 29(5/6): 789-808.

Banko, P.C., Hess, S.C., Scowcroft, P.G., Farmer, C., Jacobi, J.D., Stephens, R.M., Camp, R. J., Leonard, D. L., Brinck, K. W., Juvik, J. O., Juvik, S. P. 2014b. Evaluating the long-term management of introduced ungulates to protect the palila, an endangered bird, and its critical habitat in subalpine forest of Mauna Kea. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. 46: 871-889.

Benning, T. L.; LaPointe, D.; Atkinson, C. T.; Vitousek, P. M. 2002. Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(22): 14246-14249.

Burney, D. A., James, H. F., Burney, L. P., Olson, S. L., Kikuchi, W., Wagner, W. L., Burney, M., McCloskey, D., Kikuchi, D., Grady, F. R., Gage, R., Nishek, R. 2001. Fossil evidence for a diverse biota from Kauai and its transformation since human arrival. Ecol. Monogr. 71: 615-641.

Camp, R. J., Brinck, K. W. and Banko, P. C. 2014. Palila abundance and trend. Hawai`i Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report HCSU-053. University of Hawai‘i at Hilo. Available at:

Camp, R. J., Brinck, K. W. and Banko, P. C. 2016. Palila abundance estimates. Hawai`i Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report HCSU-076. University of Hawai‘i at Hilo. Available at:

Fancy, S. G.; Snetsinger, T. J.; Jacobi, J. D. 1997. Translocation of the Palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper. Pacific Conservation Biology 3(1): 39-46.

Giambelluca, T. W.; Luke, M. S. A. 2007. Climate change in Hawai'i's mountains. Mountain Views 1: 13-18.

Hess, S. C.; Banko, P. C. 2006. Feral cats: too long a threat to Hawaiian wildlife.

Hess, S.C., Banko, P.C., Miller, L.J. and Laniawe, L.P. 2014. Habitat and food preferences of the endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 126(4): 728-738.

Hess, S.C., Banko, P.C., Reynolds, M.H., Brenner, G.J., Laniawe, L.P. and Jacobi, J.D. 2001. Drepanidine movements in relation to food availability in subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i. . Stud. Avian Biol. 22: 154-163.

Jacobi, J. D.; Fancy, S. G.; Giffin, J. G.; Scott, J. M. 1996. Long-term population variablity in the Palila, and endangered Hawaiian Honeycreeper. Pacific Science 50: 363-370.

Leonard, D. L.; Banko, P. C.; Brinck, K. W.; Farmer, C.; Camp, R. J. 2008. Recent surveys indicate rapid decline of Palila population. 'Elepaio 68: 27-30.

Olson, S. L.; James, H. F. 1982. Prodromus of the fossil avifauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, D.C.

Pratt, T. K.; Banko, P. C.; Fancy, S. G.; Lindsey, G. D.; Jacobi, J. D. 1997. Status and management of the Palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, 1987-1996. Pacific Conservation Biology 3(4): 330-340.

Scott, J.M., Mountainspring, S., Ramsey, F.L. and Kepler, C.B. 1986. Forest bird communities of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.

Thaxton, J. M. and Jacobi, J. D. 2009. Assessment of fuels, potential fire behavior, and management options in subalpine vegetation on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai‘i. Hawai‘i Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report HCSU-013. University of Hawai‘i at Hilo. Available at: [].

Further resources

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

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This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds 2006

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Loxioides bailleui. Downloaded from on 03/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/12/2020.