Pale-bellied Myna Acridotheres cinereus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2019 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 219,000
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor suspected 2019
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been directly estimated. The species has previously been described as locally common (Feare and Craig 1998); however, the species is now rare and hard to locate within its native range in South Sulawesi (A. Banwell in litt. 2019, eBird 2019), and it is suspected that the population is now small. Recorded only infrequently, it appears that the species now occurs at very low densities and is absent from the majority of its former range; based on the likely occurrence areas and suppressed density, the population size is highly unlikely to exceed 10,000 mature individuals. Within Pale-bellied Myna's native range, it is likely that the population exists as a single subpopulation.

Trend justification: The species is now rare and hard to locate, and is known to have been heavily trapped and traded (A. Banwell in litt. 2019), having been 'common' in the 1980s (White and Bruce 1986), and 'quite common' in the 1990s (Holmes and Phillipps 1996). It is therefore assessed as being in decline. The rate of this decline is very difficult to assess as the species was previously included within a complex of several similar Acridotheres mynas, and does not occur in habitats in which ornithological research has been carried out in the region so has not been seen as a taxon of concern. Equally the confused former taxonomic status means that previous market data holds no information that can be definitively assigned to this species. Very large numbers of Javan Myna A. javanicus have been recorded in trade, but it appears highly likely that an unknown (and significant) proportion of these were Pale-bellied Mynas, given the observation of trapping and trading within the species range. Consequently a continuing decline is believed to be occurring, but the rate of this has not been quantified.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Malaysia I Extant Yes
Singapore I Extant Yes
Timor-Leste I Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Acridotheres cinereus. Downloaded from on 16/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/08/2022.