EN
Palau Ground-dove Alopecoenas canifrons



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Alopecoenas canifrons (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Gallicolumba.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(i) C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Near Threatened D1
2012 Near Threatened D1
2008 Near Threatened D1
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,700 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 poor inferred 2018
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification: The species occurs throughout the Palau archipelago but it is rare on most islands. Surveys in 1977-79 estimated a total population of approximately 500 individuals (Engbring, unpublished data, as cited in Engbring and Pratt 1985) Subsequent surveys have recorded very few individuals (Engbring 1992, VanderWerf 2007, Horii 2018), so they cannot provide reliable population estimates, but indicate that the total population is now likely to be smaller than 500 individuals. The population is therefore placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Whilst the species was previously estimated to have a population of 500 individuals (Engbring, unpublished data, as cited in Engbring and Pratt 1985), there have been very few records during recent surveys (Engbring 1992, VanderWerf 2007, Horii 2018, D. Horii in litt. 2018). Rats and cats are known to be present on some of its range islands (G. McKinlay in litt. 2018) and may prey on adults, chicks and eggs. An analysis of forest cover found that between 2000 and 2012, forest had been lost from the species's range at a rate equivalent to 4.3% across three generations (Tracewski et al. 2016). The species can therefore be inferred to be declining.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Palau N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Palau Middle Ridge, Babeldaob
Palau Ngerutechei, Babeldaob
Palau Peleliu
Palau Rock Islands
Palau Western Ridge, Babeldaob

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Boiga irregularis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Alopecoenas canifrons. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2019.